Mother Pelican
A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability

Vol. 12, No. 11, November 2016
Luis T. Gutiérrez, Editor
Home Page
Front Page


Advances in Sustainable Development


This supplement attempts to be a radar screen for recent/emerging/forthcoming advances in sustainable development. In selecting items for this supplementary page, priority is given to information about publications and tools with an educational and human-centric focus. This update includes the following reminders that sustainable development has a human face:

1. Suggestions for Prayer, Study, and Action
2. News, Publications, Tools, and Conferences
3. Advances in Sustainable Development
4. Advances in Integral Human Development
5. Advances in Integrated Sustainable Development
6. Sustainability Games, Databases, and Knowledgebases
7. Sustainable Development Measures and Indicators
8. Sustainable Development Modeling and Simulation
9. Fostering Sustainability in the International Community
Note: Items in this page are updated as information is received and as time permits. If the reader knows about new pubs/tools that should be announced in this page, please write to the Editor.



2015-2030 Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations

Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Finalized text for adoption, United Nations, 1 August 2015

Historic New Sustainable Development Agenda Unanimously Adopted by 193 UN Members, United Nations, 25 September 2015

Libraries and Implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda, International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), 8 December 2015

An Action Plan for the Sustainable Development Goals, Douglas Frantz, OECD, 27 April 2016

Framework for Understanding SDG Interactions, Draft, ICSU, June 2016

New tool for designing SDG strategies released , Millennium Institute, 10 August 2016

For the latest on the SDGs, visit the Post-2015 and Future Goals Tracker and DELIVER2030 websites, and the SDG Targets Tracker

1. Suggestions for Prayer, Study, and Action


Prayer for Serenity, Courage, and Wisdom

11.16.Darwin-Quote.jpg SERENITY PRAYER

God, grant me the serenity
to accept

the things I cannot change,

Courage to change
the things I can,

And wisdom
to know the difference.


Futures Research & Conscious Evolution

Journey to Earthland
The Great Transition to Planetary Civilization

Paul Raskin
Great Transition Initiative
Tellus Institute, 2016

A global scenario pioneer charts a path to an organic planetary civilization, a vision that opens before us as both possibility and exigency in an interdependent and dangerous century.


Local and Global Action for the Common Good

The Elders

The Elders are an independent group of global leaders working together for peace and human rights. Contact them and support their work for the common good. See personal stories of people making a difference in their communities.

2. News, Publications, Tools, and Conferences



Sustainability Science (PNAS)

Science of the Anthopocene

The Anthropocene Review


Environmental Research Letters

Progress in Industrial Ecology

Environmental Leader

Sustainable Development Magazine

Monthly Energy Review

The Environment Nexus

Energy and Climate News

BURN Energy Journal

Environmental News Network

Planet Ark
World Environmental News

Mother Earth News

Climate Action News

Sustainable Development Media

World Pulse


Environmental Science & Technology


WiserEarth News

New Internationalist

The Global Journal

Trade & Environment Nexus

Yes! Magazine

Human Development News

Science Daily
Earth & Climate News
Sustainability News
Science & Society News

International Institute for
Sustainable Development (IISD)
Reporting Services

Policy-Strategy Coverage

Sustainable Development Policy & Practice
Sustainable Development - Small Islands
Biodiversity Policy & Practice
Climate Change Policy & Practice
Energy Policy Issues
Multilateral Environmental Agreements
Earth Negotiations Bulletin

Theme Coverage

Sustainable Development
Biodiveristy & Wildlife
Chemicals Management
Climate & Atmosphere
Forests - Deserts - Land
Human Development
Intergovernmental Organizations
Trade & Investment
Water - Oceand - Wetlands

Regional Coverage

Lating America & Caribbean
Near East
North America
South West Pacific

Rio+20 Coverage

Sustainable Development Conference
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
4-6 June 2012

United Nations News Service
Rio+20: Making it Happen
UN Sustainable Development News
UN Gender Equality News

Value News Network

Catholic News Service

Anglican Communion News Service

Ekklesia Christian News Bulletin

Religion News Service

LiveScience News

Inter Press Service (PSI)

Triple Bottom Line
CSR News

The Progress Report

Global Health News

Kosmos Journal

Environment & Technology
Scholarly Journals

Environment & Society Section
American Sociological Association


Eldis Development Newsfeeds

General - all subjects

Newsfeeds by Subject

Ageing populations
Aid and debt
Children and young people
Climate Change
Climate adaptation
Corporate responsibility
Finance policy
Food security
Health systems
ICT for development
Influencing policy
Jobs, Events and Announcements
Manuals and toolkits
Trade policy

Newsfeeds by Region

East Asia and Pacific
Latin America and Caribbean
Middle East and North Africa
South Asia



Emissions Gap Report 2016
UNEP, November 2016

Atlas of the Human Planet 2016
Publications Office of the European Union
October 2016

Living Planet Report 2016
World Wildlife Fund, 2016

State of the World Population 2016
UNFPA, October 2016

Pathways to Urban Sustainability
National Academies USA, October 2016

State of Nature 2016
RSPB, UK, September 2016

World Population Data Sheet 2016
Population Reference Bureau, 2016

Frontiers in Decadal Climate Variability
National Academy of Sciences
July 2016

Annual Energy Outlook 2016
Energy Information Administration
July 2016

The Future of Jobs
World Economic Forum, July 2016

State of the World's Children
UNICEF, June 2016

Pollution in People
Environmental Working Group
June 2016

2016 Multidimensional Poverty Index
Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative
June 2016

2016 Global Peace Index
Institute for Economics and Peace
June 2016

The Price of Privilege
ActionAid, April 2016

Global Trends in
Renewable Energy Investment

UNEP, March 2016

Next Generation Earth System Prediction
NAS, March 2016

World Happiness Report
UNSDSN, 20 March 2016

One Humanity: Shared Responsibility
UN Secretary General
World Humanitarian Summit
May 2016 (Draft)

Global Trends & Opportunities
2016 and Beyond

SustainAbility, February 2016

Transitioning Toward Sustainability:
Advancing the Scientific Foundation

National Academy of Sciences
January 2016

World Economic
Situation and Prospects

UNDESA & UNCTAD, January 2016

Automation & Connectivity:
The Fourth Industrial Revolution

UBS/WEF, January 2016

Digital Dividends
World Development Report 2016

World Bank, January 2016

Global Risks Report 2016
World Economic Forum (WEF)
January 2016

Dirty Toys Made in China
Global Labor and Human Rights
December 2015

Call for an Ethical Framework for Climate Services
WMO, 12 November 2015

2015 Energy Trilemma Index
World Energy Council, November 2015

Global Wealth Report 2015
Credit Suisse, October 2015

The Challenge of Resilience
in a Globalised World

Joint Research Centre, EU, October 2015

Climate Change and the U.S. Energy Sector
US Department of Energy, October 2015

Pathways to Deep Decarbonization
UN SDSN, October 2015

Playing to Win:
The New Global Competition
for Corporate Profits

McKinsey Global Institute, September 2015

America's Future:
Environmental Research and Education
for a Thriving Century

NSF, September 2015

2015-16 State of the Future
Jerome C. Glenn, Elizabeth Florescu, et al
Millennium Project, 2015

Transforming our World: The 2030
Agenda for Sustainable Development
Finalized text for adoption,
United Nations, 1 August 2015

World Water Development Report
United Nations, July 2015

World Population Prospects
United Nations, July 2015

Climate Change: A Risk Assessment
Centre for Science and Policy
Cambridge University, July 2015

Democratic Equality, Economic Inequality,
and the Earth Charter

Steven C. Rockefeller
Earth Charter, 29 June 2015

Climate Change in the United States:
Benefits of Global Action

EPA, June 2015

Renewables 2015
Global Status Report

REN21, June 2015

Demographic Vulnerability Report
Population Institute, June 2015

FAO and Post-2015:
Nourishing People,
Nourishing the Planet

FAO, May 2015

Global Financial Stability Report
IMF, April 2015

World Happiness Report
United Nations, April 2015

National Footprint Accounts
Global Footprint Network, March 2015

Health & Fracking:
Impacts & Opportunity Costs

MEDACT, March 2015

Global Sustainable Investment
Clean Technica, 26 February 2015

World Report 2015
Human Rights Watch, 12 February 2015

Short-Term Renewable Energy Outlook
U.S. EIA, 10 February 2015

Global Risks Report 2015
WEF, January 2015

World Energy Outlook 2014
IEA, 12 November 2014

Beyond Downscaling:
A Bottom-Up Approach
to Climate Adaptation
for Water Resources Management
AGWA, October 2014

2014 Global Hunger Index
IFPRI, October 2014

The New Climate Economy
United Nations, September 2014

Living Planet Report 2014
Global Footprint Network, September 2014

Sustainable Development Goals
and Inclusive Development

UNU-IAS, September 2014

Sustainable Development Goals
and Indicators for a Small Planet
Part II: Measuring Sustainability

ASEF, August 2014

The Plain Language Guide
to Rio+20: Preparing for the
New Development Agenda

Felix Dodds et al, 28 July 2014

Human Development Report 2014
UNDP, 24 July 2014

Millennium Development Goals
Report 2014

UNDP, 7 July 2014

Global Sustainable Development
Report (GSDR)

UN DSD, 1 July 2014

Agreeing on Robust Decisions:
New processes for decision making
under deep uncertainty

World Bank, June 2014

Early Childhood Development:
The Foundation of
Sustainable Human Development
for 2015 and Beyond

UN SDSN, 4 May 2014

What’s In A Name?
Global Warming vs Climate Change

Yale Environment, May 2014

World Health Statistics 2014
WHO, 2014

The Arctic in the Anthropocene:
Emerging Research Questions
, National Academy of Sciences, 2014

Annual Energy Outlook 2014
US EIA, 30 April 2014

Global Trends in
Renewable Energy Investment 2014

UNEP-Bloomberg, April 2014

International Human Development Program
Annual Report 2013

IHDP, April 2014

Momentum for Change 2013
UNFCCC, 2014

Global Gender Gap Index 2013
WEF, April 2014

NAPAs and NAPs in
Least Developed Countries

Gabrielle Kissinger & Thinley Namgyel
ECBI, March 2014

Water & Energy 2014
United Nations, 21 March 2014

Inclusive and Sustainable
Industrial Development

UNIDO, March 2014

What We Know:
The Reality, Risks, and Response
to Climate Change

AAAS, March 2014

The State of Natural Capital
UK NCC, March 2014

Women's Lives and Challenges:
Equality and Empowerment since 2000

USAID, March 2014

Climate Change: Evidence & Causes
NAS/RS, 27 February 2014

Beyond 2014 Global Report
ICPD, 16 February 2014

World Youth Report 2013:
Youth Migration and Development

UN-DESA, 14 February 2014

State of the World's Children 2014
UNICEF, January 2014

Global Land Use:
Balancing Consumption
with Sustainable Supply

UNEP-IRP, January 2014

Sustainability Investment Yearbook 2014
RobecoSAM, January 2014



Input-Output Tables for
Regional Footprint Analysis

NTNU/TNO/SERI, January 2015

Sustainable Society Index 2014
SSI, 17 December 2014

CAIT Equity Explorer
WRI, October 20114

WBCSD Tools Box

Post-2015 SDGs Target Database
Project on Sustainability Transformation
Ministry of the Environment, Japan

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA)
Sustainable Development Evaluation Tool

UNDP, 16 September 2014

2014 Global Peace Index (GPI)
Institute for Economics and Peace, 2014

UN CC: Learn Climate Change
United Nations, 2014

Global Consumption Database
World Bank, 2014

LEAP Scenario Explorer:
Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning

Stockholm Environmental Institute, 2014

Momentum for Change Interactive
UNFCCC, 2014

Sustainable Human Development Index (SHDI)
IFMR LEAD, Tamil Nadu, India

Environment & Gender Index (EGI)

Livelihood Strategies
Knowledge Bank

Development Cafe

Global Forest Watch System
World Resources Institute

WomanStats & World Maps
WomanStats Project

Scenario Modelling and Policy Assessment Tool

European Union

OPEN EUOne Planet Economy Network
European Union

Constitutional Gender Database
UN Women

OpenGeoSci Maps
GeoScience World

Earth Data Website


2013 Legatum Prosperity Index
Legatum Institute

Global Slavery Index 2013
Walk Free Foundation

Food Policy Network Resource List
School of Public Health
Johns Hopkins University

Water Change Modelling System

Earth Charter Virtual Library
Earth Charter Initiative

Resource & Documentation Centre
European Gender Equality Institute

Climate Justice Research Database
Mary Robinson Foundation

Distribution Centre

Climate Data, Simulations, and Synthesis
Data on Related Socio-Economic Factors

Nitrogen Footprint Calculator
ECN & Oxford University

Exploring Oil Data
Open Oil

Sustainability SWOT (sSWOT) Analysis Tool
World Resources Institute

CAIT Climate Data Explorer
World Resources Institute

Sustainable Technologies Databases
EWBI International

Renewable Energy Interactive Map

Global Transition to a New Economy
Interactive Map

New Economics Institute

Map of Climate Think Tanks

Energy Access Interactive Tool

Long Range Energy Alternatives
Planning System (LEAP)

SEI Energy Community

Industrial Efficiency Policy Database

Technology Cost Database for Renewables

Mapping the Global Transition
to a New Economy

New Economics Institute

Open Source Software for
Crowdsourcing for Energy Analysis


Adaptation Support Tool

Terra Populus:
Integrated Data on
Population and Environment

NSF & University of Minnesota

Environmental Performance Index
Interactive Map & Database

EPI, Yale University

Environmental Data Explorer

Clean Energy Information Portal

Mapping the Impacts of Climate Change

Eye on Earth
Global Mapping


Database of Actions on Adaptation
to Climate Change


Climate Scoreboard
Climate Interactive

Calculator of the
Carbon Footprint of Nations


Geospatial Toolkit (GsT) for
Integrated Resource Assessment


Climate Impact Equity Lens (CIEL)
Stockholm Environment Institute

Global Adaptation Index
Global Adaptation Institute

Gridded Population of the World
CIESIN, Columbia University

The New eAtlas of Gender
World Bank

Statistics and Tools
for Gender Analysis

World Bank

Gender Statistics Database
World Bank

Live World Data
The Venus Project

Clean Energy Analysis Software

RETScreen International

IGES CDM Methodology Parameter Data

IGES Emission Reductions Calculation Sheet

OECD Sustainable Manufacturing Toolkit

OECD Family Database

OECD Social Expenditure Database

Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services
and Tradeoffs (InVEST)

Natural Capital Project

Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC)
NASA & Columbia University

IGES GHG Database

Emission Factors Database

Forestry Industry Carbon Assessment Tool
Green Resources, Tanzania

Agent-based Computational Economics
of the Global Energy System


Climate Hot Map
Union of Concerned Scientists

Solar Thermal Barometer


Forest Monitoring for Action

Water Evaluation And Planning System

Global Land Tool Network

UN-Energy Knowledge Network
Multi-dimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI)
and Energy Development Index (EDI)

Measuring Energy Poverty
Visualization Platform


United Nations Data
UN Statistics Database
UN MDG Indicators
UN Human Development Index (HDI)

Humanity's Footprint Data
Ecological Footprint
Footprint for Nations
Footprint for Cities
Footprint for Business
Carbon Footprint
Personal Footprint
Footprint & Biodiversity
Footprint & Human Development

Earth Policy Institute Data Sets
Population, Health, and Society
Natural Systems
Climate Change
Energy Resources
Transportation Systems
Food and Agriculture
Economics & Development

World Bank
World Development Indicators (WDI)
World Bank

Sustainable Society Index
StatPlanet Interactive Map

Interactive Mapping of
Population and Climate Change

Population Action International

Global Advocates Toolbox
Population Action International

Teaching and Learning
for a Sustainable Future:
Dissemination and Training Toolbox


Economic Input-Output
Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA)

Green Design Institute
Carnegie Mellon University



Conference Alerts
Find Conferences Worldwide
by Topic, Country, or Keywords.

Calls for Papers
Find Calls for Papers Worldwide
by Specialization, Country, or Keywords.

Journal Articles
The latest Tables of Contents
from thousands of scholarly journals
Search by journal title, ISNN, or keywords

Selected Announcements

Sixth World Sustainability Forum
WSF2017, Cape Town, South Africa
27-28 January 2017

35th International Conference
of the System Dynamics Society

Cambridge, Massachusetts USA
16-20 July 2017
Contact: Roberta Spencer

Sustainability Transformations
Future Earth
University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
August 30-September 1, 2017

17th Congress of the
Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN)

Portuguese National Parliament
Lisboa, Portugal
25-27 September 2017
Contact: BIEN 2017

3. Advances in Sustainable Development

How social enterprises can help us meet
the Sustainable Development Goals

Audrey Chia and Lim Yee Wei

Originally published in Deliver 2030, 18 October 2016

The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has intensified the search for sustainable solutions to development problems. While multilateral agencies such as ADB can provide funding for infrastructure, technical assistance to build and strengthen systems, it is clear that development assistance cannot go on indefinitely, as one of its aims is to nurture self-reliance and self-sustaining solutions.

A promising approach to sustainable development that complements development assistance is social entrepreneurship. In our recent paper Social Entrepreneurship: Improving Global Health we explain how social entrepreneurs have improved global health while also facilitating economic, social and environmental wellbeing.

Social entrepreneurship can be characterized by the adoption and practice of several principles. First, social entrepreneurs apply business and management principles to solving social problems, especially where governments or markets have failed or where there are unmet needs. Second, social entrepreneurs emphasize the development of efficient, affordable and cost-effective solutions.

The need to work within severe resource constraints has encouraged social entrepreneurs to be innovative and develop frugal solutions. An example is Ehealthpoint, which works in some of the poorest areas in India, offering residents access to clean water at a low fixed monthly cost. At the same time, it takes advantage of the points where residents collect water to provide primary care. Ehealthpoint developed a frugal solution that achieves both a public health goal (access to clean water) and a healthcare delivery goal (improved access to primary care).

The third guiding principle of social entrepreneurship is sustainability of solutions. Exemplary business practices and the quest for frugal solutions are not enough; social ventures need to sustain their own existence. Ehealthpoint is able to sustain itself by using the revenue it collects from the water distribution network to support the primary care points.

We see social entrepreneurship as a valuable addition to the toolkit of ADB, the UN and other multilateral agencies in their quest for sustainable development. In addition to promoting inclusive business initiatives, development agencies should consider training beneficiaries in the principles and practice of social entrepreneurship, providing seed money for social ventures, and supporting promising social ventures that have shown proof of concept and some early successes.

Development agencies should also help create ecosystems for social entrepreneurs to grow and thrive. Since they already have extensive international networks, development agencies can provide a platform to connect social entrepreneurs, impact investors, venture philanthropists and academics, enabling the exchange of experiences and insights and perhaps even promoting collaboration among the parties. The UN, for example, already has its own Impact Fund, and ADB its inclusive business initiatives. These could be built upon to create platforms or hubs for interaction and growth in the spirit of SDG 17.

From our perspective at the National University of Singapore (NUS), we observe a remarkable and growing interest in social entrepreneurship. NUS hosts a social venture competition each year. Last year we had 683 entries and this year we have 1,027. The quality of entries has also improved. As we stated in our paper, the rise of social entrepreneurship is a trend that cannot be ignored.

To solve the world’s biggest problems, we need inter-disciplinary approaches and inter-sector collaboration. SDG 17 explicitly states that we need partnership to achieve all the SDGs. By their very nature, social entrepreneurs draw ideas from diverse fields and have a healthy disrespect for traditional and sector boundaries. Their willingness to question assumptions, to ask ‘why not?’ and transpose solutions from one realm to another, is worth emulating.

Not everyone can be a social entrepreneur, nor should everyone be a social entrepreneur. However, social entrepreneurial ways of thinking and social entrepreneurial perspectives are worth understanding and adopting. We believe that social entrepreneurship is a viable and significant way to nudge the world closer to the attainment of the SDGs.

Audrey Chia and Lim Yee Wei are Associate Professors, National University of Singapore Business School, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health.

4. Advances in Integral Human Development

2015 Human Development Report

Launched 14 December 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ehiopia

From a human development perspective, work, rather than jobs or employment is the relevant concept. A job is a narrow concept with a set of pre-determined time-bound assigned tasks or activities, in an input-output framework with labour as input and a commodity or service as output. Yet, jobs do not encompass creative work (e.g. the work of a writer or a painter), which go beyond defined tasks; they do not account for unpaid care work; they do not focus on voluntary work. Work thus is a broader concept, which encompasses jobs, but goes beyond by including the dimensions mentioned above, all of which are left out of the job framework, but are critical for human development.

Work is the means for unleashing human potential, creativity, innovation and spirits. It is essential to make human lives productive, worthwhile and meaningful. It enables people to earn a living, gives them a means to participate in society, provides them with security and gives them a sense of dignity. Work is thus inherently and intrinsically linked to human development.

But it is important to recognize that there is no automatic link between work and human development. Nor does every type of work enhance human development. Exploitative work, particularly exploitation of women and children, robs people of their fair share, their rights and their dignity. Likewise, work that is hazardous - work without safety measures, labour rights, or social protection - is not conducive to human development.

More importantly, the linkages between work and human development must be seen in the context that over time the notion of what constitutes work has changed, areas of work have shifted and the modus operandi of work has evolved. What used to mean work three decades ago is no longer valid, and work is defined differently now. Now, some of these changes may contribute positively to various dimensions of human development, but some aspects of these new phenomena may have negative impacts for human development.

In the context of all these changes, time has come to relook at the issue of work in its various dimensions and dynamics through a human development lens. Thus the 2015 Human Development Report (2015 HDR) will be on Rethinking Work for Human Development.

To be launched in December 2015, the Report will zoom in on the fundamental question – how work can be rethought for human development –– to enrich human development. Given this broader perspective, the focus of 2015 HDR will be based on five building blocks:

  • Rethinking the linkages between work and human development identifying the positive intrinsic relationship between work and human development - Work provides livelihoods, income, a means for participation and connectedness, social cohesion, and human dignity - but also those situations where linkages are broken or eroded - child labour, human trafficking, etc.
  • Revisiting the new world of work, where the notions of work, areas of work and modus operandi of work have changed and the implications for human development. ICT and mobile devices are revolutionizing work. People can work anywhere. There is an e-economy. We ask the question – are these changes enhancing human development? And how may they best be harnessed to promote equitable opportunities?
  • Recognizing the worth of care work and its impact on human development. For instance care for those who cannot care for themselves is important in itself for human survival but there are other connections to human development: from an intergenerational perspective, care work is crucial for the cognitive development of children.
  • Refocusing on the notion of sustainable work to be incorporated into the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. This will include, among other issues, the environmental value of green and low carbon emission jobs and so on. And also the quality of work that can be sustained over long periods.
  • Recommending policy options for reorienting, reinventing and reorganizing work so that it enriches human development

Several targeted issues will be taken up throughout the report– youth employment, gender aspects of work, agriculture and rural development, the informal sector, and work during crisis and in post-crisis situations. In realizing the post2015 international agenda it will be critical to enable youth, who make up 50 per cent of the global population, and women, holding up half the sky, to find work opportunities that enable them to participate constructively, creatively and equitably in society.

Source: Selim Jahan, Director of the Human Development Report Office, UNDP

5. Advances in Integrated Sustainable Development

Integral Human Development and Subsidiarity

The Principle of Subsidiarity

Source: EZFord, YouTube, 23 February 2013

See also

"An issue or problem should be dealt with by the people who are closest to it"
Rudy Carrasco, PovertyCure Voice, 20 March 2012

Cardinal Reinhard Marx on Subsidiarity vs. Solidarity
Berkeley Center, Georgetown University, 20 June 2012

Integral Human Development and Subsidiarity: A Closer Look
Matthea Brandenburg & Carolyn Woo, Poverty Cure Voice, 10 January 2013

An Integrated Framework for Sustainable Development Goals
David Griggs et al, Ecology & Society, 19(4): 49, 2014

Integrated Approaches to Sustainable Development
Planning and Implementation

Capacity Building Workshop, United Nations, May 2015

6. Sustainability Games, Databases, and Knowledgebases

Source: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 18 October 2016

A new online knowledge hub launched today provides an unparalleled view of multilateral, national and sub-national efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The International Institute for Sustainable Development’s SDG Knowledge Hub consolidates our Policy & Practice knowledgebases—and the tens of thousands of published articles contained within them. Focused on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and its Sustainable Development Goals, the platform draws on IISD’s network of experts to provide real-time information on SDG implementation.

“The development of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was one of the largest participatory processes ever,” said Scott Vaughan, President of the International Institute for Sustainable Development. “Information sharing, measurement and assessment will need to continue if the global community is to achieve the aims set out in the new agenda.”

“The SDG Knowledge Hub provides a much-needed space for that exchange to take place,” said Vaughan.

IISD experts are at the meetings we report on, talking to those involved, and gathering information from official, primary sources. We also develop partnerships with the institutions and organizations we cover, and publish original content from invited experts who are working on the frontlines of SDG implementation. The SDG Knowledge Hub does not aggregate news from other sources.

The SDG Knowledge Hub will be presented at an event in Geneva, Switzerland, on October 26th, and on a webinar on November 3rd. Register for the Geneva event here, and the webinar here.

The value of the hub lays in the depth of information it will contain on each SDG, as well as the breadth of knowledge across all elements of the integrated 2030 Agenda. Content is organized and searchable according to the 17 SDGs. Information is also categorized according to actors, focusing on intergovernmental bodies, agencies and funds within the UN system, as well as national governments, major partnerships, stakeholders and non-state actors. In addition, content is searchable by seven regional groups as well as three regional groupings of small island developing States. A comprehensive calendar provides details on events that address SDG policy and practice.

Users can also filter posts by issue area, action type and specific elements in SDG 17, on the global partnership. This filter permits users to focus in on news based on whether it addresses means of implementation (MOI), such as capacity building and education, or the following systemic issues: data, monitoring and accountability; multi-stakeholder partnerships; and policy and institutional coherence.

7. Sustainable Development Measures and Indicators

Sustainable Development Goals ~ Targets Tracker

Source: Overseas Development Institute (ODI)

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be the guiding framework for international development until 2030 and are intended to provide a reference for setting national policy priorities.

This unique, searchable database provides a snapshot of what those national priorities are. Users can compare existing national targets with the ambition of the SDGs. We intend this to be a living document, supplemented and kept up to date by crowdsourcing, and we encourage others to send us new information on national goals to update the tracker.

This research report: Mind the gap? A comparison of international and national targets for the SDG agenda, ODI, June 2015, documents the gaps and data issues that must be resolved if the SDGs are to be attained by 2030.

Please send any new information on national level targets in any of the areas covered by the SDGs to


Global Footprint Network's National Footprint Accounts 2015 Public Data Package

Ecological Footprint Infographics

Footprint Calculator


Links to Global Partnership Data for the SDGs:

1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being
4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education
5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
6. Ensure availability of water and sanitation
7. Ensure access to affordable and clean energy for all
8. Promote economic growth and decent work
9. Build resilient industrial infrastructures
10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
11. Make cities resilient and sustainable
12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production
13. Take urgent action to combat climate change
14. Conserve the oceans and marine resources
15. Protect terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity
16. Promote peace and inclusive societies
17. Strengthen global partnership for sustainable development

Human Development Data (1980-2015)


8. Sustainable Development Modeling and Simulation

Integrated Model for Sustainable Development Goals Strategies (iSDG)

Millennium Institute, 13 January 2016

"C-ROADS is an award-winning computer simulation that helps people understand the long-term climate impacts of policy scenarios to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It allows for the rapid summation of national greenhouse gas reduction pledges in order to show the long-term impact on our climate." For more information, click here.


9. Fostering Sustainability in the International Community

Holy See's Note on 1st Anniversary of
Adoption of Sustainable Development Goals

Archbishop Bernardito Auza
Apostolic Nuncio and Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations

Source: Holy See Mission, 18 October 2016

1.     With proper and laudable aspirations, the 2030 Agenda, a non-binding international plan of action, was adopted by the General Assembly in the form of a resolution.[1] It is divided into five parts: (a) the preamble; (b) the Declaration; (c) the Sustainable Development Goals and targets; (d) the means of implementation and the Global Partnership; (e) the follow-up and review.

2.     In fulfilling its specifically spiritual and moral mission in the international community and within the framework of its particular status in the United Nations, the Holy See actively participated in the negotiations over the course of nearly two and a half years, both in the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals and in the intergovernmental negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda.

3.     Pope Francis, in his address to the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, described the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at the summit as “an important sign of hope”. A hope that will be realized if the Agenda is truly, fairly and effectively implemented.

4.     However, Pope Francis has warned the international community about the danger of falling into “a declarationist nominalism”, which means the practice of “assuaging consciences” with solemn and agreeable declarations, rather than rendering “truly effective the struggle against all scourges”. The Holy See, for example, expresses its hope that the current indicator of extreme poverty, approximately a dollar a day, could be accompanied by or substituted with more ambitious and broader indicators. The Holy Father has also alerted the international community to the peril of thinking that “a single theoretical and aprioristic solution will provide an answer to all the challenges”.

5.     Heeding the words of Pope Francis, the Holy See wishes to consider certain principles in evaluating the 2030 Agenda and in interpreting and implementing it at the national and international levels. To this end, the present note is divided into two parts. Part I sets out the key points contained in the address of Pope Francis to the United Nations as they relate to the 2030 Agenda. Part II considers the 2030 Agenda in the light of these and other principles.
                     Part I: general principles
6.     Understanding integral human development. The pillars of integral human development, namely, the right to life and, more generally, the right to existence of human nature itself, are threatened when we no longer recognize any instance above ourselves or see nothing else but ourselves. This can only be remedied by recognition of a moral law that is written into human nature itself, one which includes absolute respect for life in all its stages and dimensions and the natural difference between man and woman. Human rights derive from a correct understanding of human nature, the human person, inherent human dignity and the moral law.

7.     Recognizing the poor as dignified agents of their own destiny. To enable men and women to escape from extreme poverty, they must be dignified agents of their own destiny, taking into consideration that integral human development and the full exercise of human dignity cannot be imposed, but rather allowed to unfold for each individual, for every family, in relation to others, and in a right relationship with those areas in which human social life develops.[2]

8.     Providing both spiritual and material means. At the same time, the minimum spiritual and material means are needed to enable a person to live in dignity and to create and support a family, which is the primary cell of any social development. In practical terms, this means: religious freedom and education, as well as lodging, labour, land, food, water and health care.

9.     Respect for the principle of justice. Justice[3] requires concrete steps and immediate measures for preserving and improving the natural environment and putting an end to the phenomenon of social and economic exclusion, with its baneful consequences.[4]

10.    The right to education in the light of the transcendent destiny of the human person. The right to a quality and integral education must include religious education. This presupposes a holistic approach, which is ensured first and foremost by respecting and reinforcing the primary right of the family to educate its children, as well as the right of churches and social groups to support and assist families in this endeavour. Indeed, education, which etymologically means “to bring out” or “to lead out”, has a fundamental role in helping people to discover their talents and potential for putting them at the service of mankind: each person has something to offer to society and must be enabled to provide his or her contribution. An authentic education should focus on relationships because development is the fruit of good relations.

11.    Respect for the rule of law. It follows that if we want true integral human development for all, we must work to avoid conflict between nations and between peoples by ensuring the uncontested rule of law.

12.    Peaceful resolution of disputes. We must have recourse to the peaceful resolution of disputes through dialogue, negotiation, mediation and arbitration; the renewal and acceleration of efforts in the disarmament process; transparency in the sale of arms and prohibitions in this trade to countries in conflict.

13.    Service to others and respect for the common good. This calls for a wisdom which is open to the reality of transcendence and which recognizes that the full meaning of individual and collective life is found in selfless service to others and in the prudent and respectful use of creation for the common good.

14.    Building the foundation of universal fraternity. In the final analysis, the common home of all men and women must continue to be constructed on the foundations of a correct understanding of universal fraternity and respect for the sacredness of created nature, beginning with every human life.
                     Part II: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
15.    The 2030 Agenda is a clear sign that, in spite of differences in some areas, the international community has come together and affirmed its commitment to eradicate poverty in all its forms and dimensions and to ensure that all children, women and men throughout the world will have the conditions necessary to live in true freedom and dignity. Keeping in mind that the Holy See agrees with most of the goals and targets enumerated in the Agenda, at this point, the Holy See, in conformity with its nature and particular mission, wishes to make clarifications and reservations on some of the concepts used in the 2030 Agenda. The Holy See wishes to highlight the fact that the comments made herein take into consideration the reservations it entered into the record concerning targets 3.7 and 5.6, paragraph 26 of the Agenda as well as certain expressions, the full details of which can be found in the Holy See’s position statement on the 2030 Agenda.[5]

16.    Interpretation. The 2030 Agenda acknowledges that it must be interpreted in accordance with international law, including international human rights law (General Assembly resolution 70/1, paras. 10, 18 and 19).

    (a)     That the Agenda should be interpreted pursuant to these norms means — and the Holy See emphasizes — a “proper interpretation” in accordance with consolidated and recognized principles.[6]

    (b)    In this regard, the Holy See maintains that the 2030 Agenda should be construed in good faith according to the ordinary meaning of the terms in their context and in the light of the 2030 Agenda’s object and purpose, which is set out in the preamble and reaffirmed in the Declaration.

   (c)     It follows that the goals, targets and eventual indicators should not be considered in isolation from the Agenda.

   (d)    The Holy See is guided by the concept of the common good, as defined in the present note (see para. 19 (b)), in addition to the principles of solidarity and subsidiarity, which are explicitly reflected in the 2030 Agenda, in a variety of ways.

   (e)     The principles of national sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of States are also explicitly acknowledged along with the “different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country” (ibid., para. 59; see also preamble, para. 5 and paras. 3, 5, 18, 21, 38, 47, 55, 56).

17.    Purpose of the Agenda. With the 2030 Agenda, the international community is committed to “eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions” (preamble, para. 1) based on the “centrality of the human person as the subject primarily responsible for development” and the related pledge that “no one will be left behind” (preamble, para. 2 and paras. 4, 48).[7]

   (a)     It is in this perspective that the entire 2030 Agenda should be read, and this includes the respect for the right to life of the person, from conception until natural death.[8]

   (b)    The poles of human life have been described by Pope Francis as “the strength” and “memory” of the family in underlining that “[a] people incapable of caring for children and caring for the elderly is a people without a future, because it lacks the strength and the memory needed to move forward”.[9]

18.    Centrality of the human person. That the human person is the primary subject responsible for development (preamble, paras. 1, 2, 5 and 7 and paras. 1, 2, 27, 50, 52, 74 (e)), means that we need a deeper appreciation “of our common origin, of our mutual belonging, and of a future to be shared with everyone”.[10]

   (a)     This, in turn, entails a growing awareness of our general human nature, of the transcendent dimension of human existence as well as respect for the human body in its femininity or masculinity.[11]

   (b)    A correct understanding of the human person, as a unity of body and soul, leads to a recognition that sexuality is an important dimension of human identity.

   (c)     Sexuality must be lived in accordance with the dignity of each person, who does not have individual sexual rights, since a sexual relationship requires full respect for the dignity and liberty of each person forming the couple.

19.    The concept of human dignity. The 2030 Agenda uses the term “dignity” in a variety of ways (preamble, para. 4 and paras. 4, 8, 50).

   (a)     It acknowledges the dignity of every human being in using the term “human dignity”, which the Holy See understands to mean inherent and inalienable human dignity, that is, the transcendent worth of the human person, from which rights and duties derive.[12]

   (b)    The Agenda also speaks of persons who live in dignity, which the Holy See relates to the principle of the common good: an objective evaluation of a relatively thorough and ready access to the sum of conditions of social life directed to integral development and genuine fulfillment.[13]

   (c)     In addition, the Holy See maintains that each person has an “acquired dignity” that is developed when one freely maximizes or perfects his or her possibilities in accordance with right reason, and for believers, such reason is illumined by faith.[14]

20.    Promotion of women and men, girls and boys. We must acknowledge that women have a special role to play in the family and society and with specific regard to integral human development per se.

  (a)     This is due to their unique presence in the creation of life as physical and spiritual mothers, who have special, but not exclusive gifts, that include defending, nurturing, and caring for life, from conception until natural death.

   (b)    It follows that women must be promoted and given the means to realize their inherent dignity as feminine persons and protected from psychological and physical violence, through all forms of abortion, including female feticide and female infanticide, so that they can contribute their gifts in all contexts of society, including informal peace processes (such as the family and various organizations) and formal peace processes.

   (c)     The Holy See emphasizes that any references to “gender”, “gender equality” and “gender equality and empowerment of women and girls” are understood according to the ordinary, generally accepted usage of the word “gender” based on the biological identity that is male and female, which is, in turn, reinforced by the numerous references in the 2030 Agenda to both sexes (paras. 15, 20, 25). Pope Francis, following in the footsteps of his predecessors, has frequently spoken about the perils of “gender ideology” which denies the relevance of biological sex, male and female, in opining that there is a plethora of “genders” based on one’s subjective perceptions.[15]

  (d)    By using the term “promotion”, instead of “empowerment”, the Holy See seeks to avoid a disordered view of authority as power rather than service,[16] and expresses the hope that women and girls, in particular, will challenge this flawed perspective of authority with a view to humanizing the situations in which they live.

  (e)    Consequently, to avoid ideological and political connotations, the expression “promotion of women” should be understood as respect for the dignity of women, strengthening them, educating them, giving them a voice when they have none and helping them to develop abilities and assume responsibilities.

  (f)   However, the promotion of women is difficult to achieve without the “promotion of men”, in the sense of encouraging and supporting them to be responsible husbands and fathers and to assume their responsibilities in advancing the integral development of women and girls.

21.    Health. The Holy See supports and promotes access to basic health care and affordable medicines as well as a broad health-care context which includes clean water, sanitation, electricity for hospitals and health-care units and the training of nurses and doctors. The Holy See reads Goal 2 as including the right to food and Goal 6 as including the right to water and the concept of affordable water.

  (a)     The term “healthy life” is to be understood to mean the health of the person as a whole — including the most vulnerable, the unborn, the sick, the disabled — during all stages of development of the life of the person, taking into consideration every dimension (physical, psychological, spiritual and emotional).

  (b)    Since the right to health is a corollary to the right to life, it can never be used as a way to end the life of a person, who is such from conception until natural death. The same is true for targets 3.7 and 5.6. In brief, target 3.7 advocates “universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes” while target 5.6 calls for “universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights”.

   (c)     In regard to “reproductive health” and related expressions, including “sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights” (target 5.6), the very terms “reproduction” and “reproductive” are problematic since they obscure the transcendent dimension of human procreation. The term “procreation” is preferred because it reflects the participation of the couple, man and woman, in God’s work of creation.

  (d)    The Holy See does not consider such terms as applying to a holistic concept of health, as they fail to embrace, each in their own particular way, the person in the entirety of his or her personality, mind and body, and they further fail to foster the achievement of personal maturity in sexuality and in the area of mutual love and decision-making, thereby overlooking the characteristics of the conjugal relationship between a married man and woman that are in accordance with moral norms.[17] The Holy See rejects the interpretation that considers abortion or access to abortion, maternal surrogacy or sex-selective abortion, and sterilization as dimensions of these terms.

  (e)     In regard to Goal 10 devoted to reducing inequality within and among countries and target 10.b on development assistance, it should be understood that States and international organizations are not permitted to use coercion or the exertion of pressure on other States and organizations in order to impose policies that undermine the ethical and cultural foundations of the society through international economic assistance or development programmes.[18]

    (f)     Similarly, national governments should ensure that public and private health care respect the inherent dignity of the human person and ethical and medical protocols, based on right reason, as well as the freedom of religion and right to conscientious objection of health-care workers and providers.

22.    The rights and duties of the family. That the human person, a social being, is at the heart of the 2030 Agenda means — and the Holy See emphasizes — that the family, the natural and fundamental unit of society, based on marriage between one man and one woman, is also at the centre of development, and in accordance with international human rights law is entitled to protection by society and the State.[19] The 2030 Agenda also rightly recognizes the importance of “cohesive communities and families” (para. 25).

   (a)    The communion between husband and wife gives life to the love and solidarity of all members of the family, from which local, national, regional and international solidarity derive. For purposes of international law, a distinction must be made between the family as a “unit of society” and “household”, the term used in Goal 5, target 5.4.

   (b)    The latter term includes a variety of living situations (for example, child-headed households, single mothers with children under their care, cohabitating couples), whose individual members and their well-being are always of concern for the State. On the other hand, such protection should never detract from the special protection that must be given to the family which is the natural and fundamental unit of society as a subject of rights and duties prior to the State.[20]

   (c)     On this point, the Holy See relies on the “Charter of the Rights of the Family” (1983) in relation to what protection for the family might entail through its consideration of the issues based on right reason.

   (d)    In the words of Pope Francis, “[w]e cannot call any society healthy when it does not leave real room for family life. We cannot think that a society has a future when it fails to pass laws capable of protecting families and ensuring their basic needs”.[21]

23.    The rights and duties of parents. The recognition of the special protection to be given the family based on the marriage between one man and one woman, recognized in international law, means that the international community favours the transmission of life with the intimate relationship of parents and care of their children.

    (a)     This reality is supported by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, when it recognizes that the family is “the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children” (Convention on the Rights of the Child, preamble, para. 5); and when it acknowledges that a child has the “right to know and be cared for by his or her parents” (Convention on the Rights of the Child, art. 7).

    (b)    The Holy See underlines that it cannot endorse methods of family planning which fundamentally separate the essential dimensions of sexuality, namely the unitive and procreative elements of the conjugal act between a husband and a wife.[22]

   (c)     Moreover, the responsible and moral decisions concerning the number of children and the spacing of births belong to parents, who must be free from all coercion and pressure from public authorities, including any demographic data that might induce fear and anxiety about the future. Fertility awareness and education are fundamental in the promotion of responsible parenthood.[23]

   (d)    The governments of countries should also be free from similar coercion and pressure, especially by “oppressive lending systems”.[24]  In this regard, Pope Francis has also underlined the perils of “ideological colonization”, that is, when the cost of receiving the money is the imposition of an idea upon the people that “changes, or means to change, a mentality or a structure”.[25]

    (e)     Furthermore, in the first instance, parents have the responsibility to protect the rights of the children “before as well as after birth” and together with the State must ensure access “to pre-natal and post-natal health care” (Convention on the Rights of the Child, preamble, para. 9 and para. 24).

    (f)     Consequently, the Holy See reads the 2030 Agenda, with particular regard to the reduction of preventable “newborn, child and maternal mortality”, so as to include the unborn child.

    (g)    With specific regard to young parents, so that a man and a woman of the appropriate age may marry each other, conditions must be developed to assist these couples with particular attention to work, education, rest and family balancing issues.

    (h)    In addition, the Holy See has continually emphasized the prior rights of parents to educate their child according to their religious and moral beliefs, including dimensions of human love and related matters concerning the nature of sexuality, marriage and the family.[26]

24.    Freedom of religion. From the perspective of the Holy See, the phrase ending “poverty in all its forms” (General Assembly resolution 70/1, preamble, para. 1), includes material, social and spiritual poverty. The 2030 Agenda acknowledges intercultural understanding and recognizes international human rights law, both of which include religious freedom.

     (a)     The Holy See wishes to emphasize that the religious dimension is not a “subculture without right to a voice in the public square”; it is a fundamental part of every people and every nation and “by its nature, transcends places of worship and the private sphere of individuals and families”.[27]

    (b)    Religious freedom “shapes the way we interact socially and personally with our neighbours whose religious views differ from our own” and interreligious dialogue, permits us to speak to one another, as opposed to taking up arms.[28]

     (c)     Taking into consideration the ongoing atrocities against Christians and other religious minorities, the Holy See maintains that issues relating to religious freedom per se and freedom of conscience as well as interreligious and intrareligious dialogue must be given priority for the ultimate success of the 2030 Agenda.

     (d)    Indeed, the separate goals in the 2030 Agenda relating to peace and inclusive societies are of particular importance for the related crisis concerning the increasing numbers of migrants, refugees and displaced persons, who are obviously bringing with them various religious traditions.

     (e)     The strength, determination and perseverance of these people “remind us of the transcendent dimension of human existence and our irreducible freedom in the face of any claim to absolute power”.[29]

25.    Integral human development. According to the 2030 Agenda, it is an “integrated” development plan based on the three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental, which, as noted above, puts the human person at the heart of the plan (preamble).

   (a)     This means that the success of the 2030 Agenda depends upon going beyond the language of economics and statistics precisely because the real emphasis is on the human person and his or her activities.[30]

   (b)   Therefore, considerations of a moral, spiritual and religious dimension cannot be ignored without serious detriment to the human person and his or her full development.

   (c)     It follows that Goal 12 on ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns should be understood as not only regarding limits on natural resources but also as including criteria that relates to the promotion of solidarity and self-restraint.

   (d)    With regard to the term “sustainable development” the Holy See understands the concept as referring to the acknowledgement of “the limits of available resources, and of the need to respect the integrity and the cycles of nature … [as well as] the nature of each being and of its mutual connection in an ordered system, which is precisely the cosmos”.[31]

    (e)     The Holy See prefers to use the expression “integral human development”, which includes sustainable development.


1.  General Assembly resolution 70/1 of 25 September 2015, entitled “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”.
2.  For example, families, friends, communities, towns and cities, schools, businesses and unions, provinces and nations.
3.  It is noteworthy that the perennial concept of justice is the constant and perpetual will to give to the other what is his or her due.
4. For example, human trafficking, the marketing of human organs and tissues, the sexual exploitation of boys and girls, slave labour, including prostitution, the drug and weapons trade, terrorism and international organized crime.
5. Position statement of the Holy See on the outcome document of the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda, “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (New York, 1 September 2015); see also the explanation of position and reservations of the Holy See on the report of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (A/68/970/Add.1, pp. 22-23).
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. Pope Francis, “Prayer vigil for the Festival of Families: address of the Holy Father”, Philadelphia, 26 September 2015.
10. Position statement on the 2030 Agenda.
11. Ibid.
12. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, preamble, para. 1; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, preamble, paras. 1 and 2; and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, preamble, paras. 1 and 2.
13. See Catechism of the Catholic Church 1905-1912, 1924-1927 (1993); and Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the modern world, Gaudium et Spes, 7 December 1965, No. 26.
14. Pontifical Council for the Family, “The family and human rights”, 1998, No. 13.
15. See, for example, Pope Francis, “Address to the bishops of the Episcopal Conference of Puerto Rico on their Ad Limina visit”, Domus Sanctae Marthae, 8 June 2015; see also encyclical letter “Laudato Si: On Care for Our Common Home”, 24 May 2015, No. 155; and “Address to the United Nations Organization”, New York, 25 September 2015.
16. Pope Francis, homily, 19 March 2013; see also Congregation on the Doctrine of the Faith, “Letter to the bishops of the Catholic Church on the collaboration of men and women in the Church and in the world” (2004).
17. See Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. V, para. 27; see also position statement on the 2030 Agenda.
18. In “Laudato Si: On Care for Our Common Home”, No. 50, the Pope lamented that “[i]nstead of resolving the problems of the poor and thinking of how the world can be different, some can only propose a reduction in the birth rate” and apply international pressure on developing countries, “which make economic assistance contingent on certain policies of ‘reproductive health’”.
19. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, art. 16.3; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, art. 23.1; and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, art. 10.1.
20. Ibid.
21. See “Prayer vigil for the Festival of Families: address of the Holy Father”, 2015; see also the intervention of the Secretary for Relations with States at the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda, New York, 27 September 2015: “The family, the natural and fundamental unit of society, is the primary agent of sustainable development, and therefore the model of communion and solidarity among nations and international institutions. A shared concern for the family and its members is a sure contributor to poverty reduction, better outcomes for children, equality between girls and boys, women and men, as well as improved work-family-rest balance, and stronger intra- and intergenerational bonds. It would do us well not to forget the ample evidence that family-friendly policies — including respect for religion and the right of parents to educate their children — contribute effectively to the achievement of development goals, including the cultivation of peaceful societies”.
22. See position statement on the 2030 Agenda; see also Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, chap. V, para. 27.
23. See Pope Francis, “Meeting with representatives of civil society: address of the Holy Father”, Apostolic journey to Ecuador, Plurinational State of Bolivia and Paraguay, July 2015.
24. See “Address to the United Nations Organization”, New York, 25 September 2015.
25. See Pope Francis, in-flight press conference from the Philippines to Rome, 19 January 2015; see also “Meeting with families: address of His Holiness Pope Francis”, Mall of Asia Arena, Manila, 16 January 2015.
26. Ibid.
27. See Pope Francis, “Meeting for religious liberty with the Hispanic community and other immigrants: address of the Holy Father”, Philadelphia, 26 September 2015.
28. Ibid.
29. Ibid.
30. See position statement on the 2030 Agenda; see also the intervention of the Secretary for Relations with States, New York, 27 September 2015.
31. Pope John Paul II, encyclical letter, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 30 December 1987, Nos. 26 and 34.


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