A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability
Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2014|
Luis T. Gutiérrez, Editor
Collective Evolution for Solidarity and Sustainability
This essay continues the series of reflections on family issues and sustainable development. It started by posing the need for gender balance in post-patriarchal societies. This working hypothesis was then critically examined by way of considering anticipated resistance to change from secular and religious quarters. Then the concept of integral human development was introduced, followed by surveys of the anthropological, social, and ecological evidence about the impossibility of infinite material growth (population x consumption) in a finite planet. The hypothesis was then clarified by recognizing that a sustainable humanity requires a sustainable nature, and vice versa; and attaining gender balance is the only way to responsibly take care of ourselves and the entire community of creation. This in turn entails the need for a significant cultural evolution, from patriarchy to solidarity and sustainability, that must be consciously fostered by individuals, and collectively supported by institutions, in nuclear families and in the entire human family. This is the only way that a new civilization of solidarity and sustainability can be attained.
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Collective Evolution for Solidarity and Sustainability
This essay continues the series of reflections on family issues and sustainable development. It started by posing the need for gender balance in post-patriarchal societies. This working hypothesis was then critically examined by way of considering anticipated resistance to change from secular and religious quarters. Then the concept of integral human development was introduced, followed by surveys of the anthropological, social, and ecological evidence about the impossibility of infinite material growth (population x consumption) in a finite planet. The hypothesis was then clarified by recognizing that a sustainable humanity requires a sustainable nature, and vice versa; and attaining gender balance is the only way to responsibly take care of ourselves and the entire community of creation. This in turn entails the need for a significant cultural evolution, from patriarchy to solidarity and sustainability, that must be consciously fostered by individuals and collectively supported by institutions.
It might seem that this is a chimerical hypothesis, but not so:
"We have successfully navigated many transitions in the course of our evolution from communities of hunter-gatherers to high-tech urban societies... Our success as a species has been made possible by our ability, particularly when our vital interests are threatened, to cooperate. And at the very heart of cooperation is the principle of taking into account the interests and welfare of others. I am therefore confident that we humans will once again find ways, through cooperation, to overcome our current ecological and technological challenges. But there can be no room for complacency." Dalai Lama, Beyond Religion, 2011
Indeed, "there can be no room for complacency," but Homo sapiens sapiens is capable of adaptation, and a cultural evolution to go beyond patriarchy can and must be fostered, consciously and collectively, in nuclear families and in the entire human family, pursuant to a new civilization of solidarity and sustainability.
The Nuclear Family
"As the family goes, so goes the nation and so goes the whole world in which we live." John Paul II, Homily, 30 November 1986
The nuclear family is the basic unity of society. It is the "domestic school" of good citizenship. What children learn from their parents is crucial for their development as human persons. The nuclear family is where personal conscience is formed. Other secular and religious institutions may be influential, and adult persons are free to make choices, but the ethical sense of what is "good" and what is "bad" is the most important treasure parents bestow on their children.
For the past six thousand years or so, the conservation and transmission of ethical values from parents to children has been conditioned by the patriarchal structure of nuclear families, with the father (pater familias) as the top authority in all matters. The inception of this patriarchal family system predated the advent of all ethical and religious traditions, and became normative not only in nuclear families but in extended families, and pervasive as the structure of governance for all other secular and religious institutions. But we are now witnessing a transition from this model to a more egalitarian order of things whereby husband and wife, father and mother, consciously share both responsibility and authority. For reasons that are becoming apparent in light of modern psychology and biblical exegesis, as well as lessons from human ecology, the transition from patriarchy to solidarity, in family and society, is a sign of hope for the future.
The Human Family
"We are more alike, my friends, than we are unalike."|
Human Family, Maya Angelou, 1928-2014
Indeed, all differences notwithstanding, a human is a human is a human. The quest for solidarity and sustainability is a quest for improved human relations and is, fundamentally, a quest for a global ethical system appropriate for the entire human family as we enter the Anthropocene. Pope John Paul II's Theology of the Body (TOB) is a monumental work of theological anthropology that transcends patriarchalism and feminism, complementarianism and egalitarianism, capitalism and socialism, and provides an insightfully refreshing synthesis of biblical wisdom and human experience that is universally applicable to improve gender relations and extends to all human relations and all relations between humanity and the human habitat. Similar contributions from other religious traditions, such as the universal ethics proposed by the Dalai Lama, will be considered later in this series. For Christians, the theology of the body provides a light that shines in the darkness and points in the right direction.
THEOLOGY OF THE BODY & THEOLOGY OF GENDER
A synthesis of the TOB was provided in the July essay and expanded in the August essay. Basically, the TOB is built on two pillars of theological anthropology:
1. People are not just bodies but "body-persons" in perfect unity of objective and subjective being, body and soul, flesh and spirit.
2. Persons/communities attain integral development by interacting with other persons/communities and the entire human habitat.
Theologically, the first pillar is that we are created in God's image (imago Dei), and the body is the visible sacrament of an invisible reality. The second pillar is that the invisible (divine) reality is made visible to the extent that persons think and act in communion with others, thereby enhancing the image and making Trinitarian communion more clearly visible.
In other words, human development unfolds in community, not in isolation. It unfolds by way of mutual cooperation, not by way of zero sum competition. But cooperation entails working together for the common good of each person and every person in the concrete reality of their objective and subjective needs and desires, not simply the kind of skin-deep cooperation that fails to consider anything except physicality. Sexual differentiation is the most profound source of diversity, required for human reproduction. Other, more superficial differences include race, ethnicity, and various other attributes. Underneath them all is the common core of body-humanity. The two pillars, taken together, are about unity in diversity, equality in mutuality, individuality in community.
The TOB is based on a careful biblical exegesis of the creation narratives in the Book of Genesis, chapters 1 and 2. It is a very refreshing analysis that transcends both "traditional" patriarchal interpretations and some modern interpretations driven by radical feminist ideologies. The complementarity of man and woman is one mutual self-giving, not uniformity. The fundamental equality of man and women is one of interdependence, not unilateral self-sufficiency. Integral human development happens in conjunction with communitarian dynamics, not the kind of individualistic isolation that fails to consider the common good.
The following diagram attempts to summarize this biblical exegesis:
"Although in its normal constitution, the human body carries within it the signs of sex and is by its nature male or female, the fact that man is a 'body' belongs more deeply to the structure of the personal subject than the fact that in his somatic constitution he is also male or female." John Paul II (TOB 8:1)
Clearly, men and women share one and the same human nature. Both men and women are equally and fully human, just as Jesus of Nazareth was fully human, albeit also divine; for Christians believe that, in Christ, one divine Person coexists in perfect unity with divine and human natures. Unfortunately, the TOB has been misinterpreted so as to suggest that sexual differentiation also produces an essential difference between men and women that goes beyond corporeal and psychological differences to their ontological nature as human beings: two persons, two natures. According to this theory, it would seem that sexual differentiation entails nature differentiation. This would be an erroneous interpretation of the TOB that may serve to rationalize the exclusion of women from the sacramental priesthood but is incompatible with the orthodox Christian understanding of human nature, divine nature, and human versus divine personhood:
"The twentieth century development of a theology which seeks to define a positive role for women in the church has arisen to a large extent out of the need to provide a theological justification for the exclusion of women from the sacramental priesthood, in the face of the challenge posed by the women’s movement. In the past, this exclusion was based on the claim that women were inferior to men by virtue of the fact that their rational souls were housed in female bodies rather than male ones, and they were therefore incapable of symbolizing Christ as the embodiment of perfect humanity. Faced with the need to affirm the equality of women and the goodness of the body, both of which have been significant developments in twentieth century Catholic doctrine, the Catholic church has resorted to an ontology of sexual difference which risks excluding women from the symbols of salvation and therefore from the story of redemption in Christ. Women are no longer denied access to the sacramental priesthood because we are inferior to men but because we are by nature incapable of representing Christ, because we are not male and the masculinity of Christ is essential to his identification with God. Whereas once the saving significance of the incarnation lay in the fact that Christ took human flesh in its most perfect form - that of the male - today it lies in the fact that Christ was a male body which is essentially different from being a female body, and this explicitly excludes the possibility of female Christ-likeness. This is, to quote Janet Martin Soskice, 'more than just a moral infelicity from the point of its critics - [it] is a blow at the heart of orthodox Christology.'" Tina Beattie, The Female Body and the Sacramental Priesthood in neo-orthodox Catholic Theology, 1999
In other words, is Jesus the "model human" or the "model male"? If Jesus is just the "model male," who is the "model female"? Mary of Nazareth? Is she the "model female" or the best icon of her Son? These are questions that the sacramental Christin churches have yet to answer, but it is not insignificant that the TOB was articulated shortly after the dogma of the assumption of Mary body and soul to heaven, which was proclaimed by Pope Pius XII in 1950; for the dogma of the assumption comes full circle to tie the original stories of the creation of man, male and female, to our "here and now" in the biblical history of salvation. This is the precise definition:
"... by the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory." Munificentissimus Deus, 1950 § 44
At least for 1.2 billion Roman Catholics, this dogmatic definition is arguably the beginning of the end for the patriarchal culture that has prevailed worldwide since 4000 BCE or so. Jesus is the New Adam. Mary is the New Eve. In Jesus, God became human. In Mary, humanity is divinized. It took two millennia of Christian history to recognize this as a matter of faith. It remains to be seen how long it will take for this beautiful revelation to be internalized by people of various religious persuasions (reportedly 80% of the human population) as well as people who do not profess adherence to any religion.
The main focus of the TOB is the redemption of the body and the sacramentality of marriage, but the implications go far beyond spousal love in married life. It sheds light on all manifestations of the gift of love and the gift of life, and therefore on all dimensions of human relations. It also sheds light on the inner dynamics of the church as the body of Christ. The priestly ordination of women is a sign of the spousal love of Christ for the church. It is a sign of Christ and the church becoming "one flesh." Christ is the Bridegroom, and the church is the Bride, but they are of the same flesh and a purely patriarchal reading of the well-known Pauline allegory (Ephesians 5:21-33) cannot possibly exhaust the Christ-Church mystery.
Theology of Gender
A recent publication by Christian Aid,
Of the Same Flesh: Exploring a Theology of Gender, introduces a theology of gender (TOG) from within the context of concrete situations of social and ecological injustice. It is a very comprehensive report from the grassroots, and substantially converges with the TOB on all essential issues of human sexuality and gender relations. The "redemption of the body" in the TOB, and the "redemption of gender" in the TOG, refer to the same existential realities in the economy of salvation; and they both apply to resolving the fundamental issues of solidarity and sustainability, and yield the same prescription for peace and justice: unity in diversity, equality in mutuality, individuality in community for all men and women who are 'of one flesh'. The entire document deserves to be studied by anyone interested in gender relations. Following are some excerpts:
"Christians believe that our being 'male and female is a gift of God, and should be experienced as joy for humankind. When gender becomes a weapon of oppression then something is badly wrong...
"At the heart of the Christian faith is the confidence that all human beings are loved by God and the imperative that we should love our neighbors, all our neighbors, with a joyful and generous heart. There is also the belief and trust that God made us 'male and female' and that this is a gift of God's good creation...
"Why is it that gender is one of the most is one of the most powerful determinants of poverty? This is the starting point for our theology: our particular experience of working to overcome poverty. However complex the causes of poverty, it is very plain that gender is a core factor and that this needs explaining and changing. When a source of joy has become instead a source of poverty and exclusion, we need to understand how this has happened and to change it."
"From machismo cultures that skew masculinity, to the striking evidence of the poverty and exclusion of women, there is a sense that the world is not as it should be in relation to gender. This is the common tragedy of humankind, but it is also the particular pain of the most poor and vulnerable...
"Women and girls are consistently discriminated against and exploited in economic activity at every level, from local to global...
"Most religious teachings have encouraged maintenance of traditional male and female roles... This is why theological reflection on gender is a pressing priority...
"We have learned, for example, that it is not only systems and structures, but also relationships and attitudes that need to change. We can only set men and women free from poverty by changing and reshaping the social norms and discourses that have brought us to the present reality ...
"It is true that the Church has contributed to ways of understanding gender that have been profoundly unjust and oppressive. The Church has sometimes colluded with, and been seduced by, contexts and cultures in which the oppression of women by men has become normative, despite the fact that this is not what Christian faith demands. This means that a key task for the Church is to reclaim from our own roots a tradition in which gender may be a source of joy for all, and redeemed in justice...
"Faith is often a strong part of what shapes the meaning and understanding of gender, and thus faith, and its theological underpinning, must be part of the discussion and the practice of change...
"When the separation, the difference, between men and women is the focus of all thinking on gender, it can lead to harmful stereotypes... so the unity of men and women is affirmed, emphasizing what they can share rather than what might separate them...
"Our relating to one another as male and female is one way in which we find unity of being and equality within difference. Experience reveals that it is this way of reading [the creation stories] that is needed today... Here is gender difference described as the source of joy, of the ending of loneliness, while male and female are affirmed as 'of the same flesh'...
"There are no stories of Jesus supporting the way of understanding gender that has become dominant in a world of gender injustice. There are, however, stories suggesting that, as far as Jesus is concerned, women are 'flesh of my flesh'. If the world told women to be silent, it's Jesus who entrusts them with the task of proclaiming the resurrection...
'In the New Testament, both men and women are described as being members of the body of Christ. This is a striking image that, when explored deeply, might challenge the straightforward masculinity we ascribe to Christ. According to the New Testament, there is a new humanity because women may also be described as part of the body of Christ...
"The Christian tradition offers the hope and promise that male and female are both made in the image of God, are of one flesh and that we are 'one in Christ'. This tradition celebrates the difference of male and female, but not the kind of difference that leads to a hierarchy of power and the oppression of women. It celebrates our being 'one' in the sense of having the same fundamental being and value, as the foundation of our unity...
"Recent Christian reflection on the theology of gender is not best seen as a reaction to secular movement or ideas, but as a reclaiming of theology that is rooted in the very earliest traditions. When the writers of the creation stories of Genesis said that both male and female are made in God's image and of one flesh, and when the earliest Christians lived as a united body of Christ, they were challenging the cultures around them, just as these ideas still challenge the ones in which we live. They understood that our being male and female can be a source of oppression and injustice, but they knew it foundationally to be God's creation, a source of joy, salvation and renewal...
"The early Christian witness to a new understanding of gender is a far more radical challenge to the life of the Church than contemporary secular feminism! To wrestle with this challenge is not a turn from Christian orthodoxy but a new faithfulness to its most profound insights, and is demonstrated well in the work of many contemporary theologians...
"It might be ideas as apparently simple as the stories from Genesis, of how male and female are both created 'in the image of God' and 'of one flesh', that will help us find our feet again within the sands of argument and complexity...
...gender equality is critical to development. The empowerment of women transforms societies, as it unlocks the potential of half of the world's population."
"We can be encouraged that the Christian faith has, from its historical beginnings and from its roots in the most ancient Scriptures, found ways of understanding who we are as women and men that are much more counter-cultural than we usually assume. The tragedy is that they have so often been covered over, twisted or ignored. The time has come to let them speak right into the challenges of today's world, bringing true hope for men and women who are 'of one flesh'.
Of the Same Flesh: Exploring a Theology of Gender
Susan Durber, Christian Aid, July 2014
Lamentably, the crucial role of Mary of Nazareth in the mysteries of the incarnation and the redemption is not mentioned in this otherwise extraordinarily insightful report, and this omission will not be missed by critics in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. But these more "sacramental" churches cannot just hide behind the Blessed Virgin Mary anymore. The convergence of the TOB with sacramental theology remains a tragic abstraction as long as women are excluded from the sacramental priesthood, and mere sugarcoating of the issue is no longer credible as a way to overcome the patriarchal mindset of male domination. To keep pushing patriarchal ideology as part of the Christian faith is a perversion of biblical tradition, perpetuates confusion among the faithful by mixing revealed truth with culturally conditioned norms, and contributes to social and ecological injustice.
Integral Human Development
Integral human development is about liberation of the whole person - body and soul, flesh and spirit - from every form of oppression and every obstacle to personal development. Such liberation must happen in a communitarian context, or it cannot happen at all; for a human person cannot find h**self except by sharing h**self with others. This is most beautifully expressed in the Madonna without Child poem by Hubert Edgar Fix:
"She holds His shoes in her hands.
They are worn shoes,
but the only clothes not stolen
by Romans and priests and elders
and everyone else who always wanted
a piece of Him. But they cannot have
her piece. The feet that wore these shoes
were feet of her feet, blood of her blood,
tears of her tears.
As yet, the halo has not been painted.
As yet, she is still a Semitic woman
with a dead Semitic son. And yet,
the halo will shine no brighter than now,
barely reflecting off brighter tears;
tears that will paint her halo brighter
than any pale Dutch Master ever could."
Hubert Edgar Hix, CBE Scroll, Winter 2014
From the exultation of the Magnificat to the agony of Calvary, Mary is the maternal image of God who is always on the side of the poor and the oppressed, and she herself, together with her Son, "walked the talk" to the bitter end. But after the misery of the cross comes the glory of the resurrection, and the ascension, and assumption. It happened to her, and it can happen to all men and women willing to share in the splendid challenge of a collective migration from the current global mess to a new civilization of solidarity and sustainability.
Collective Evolution for Solidarity and Sustainability
The process of conscious evolution away from patriarchy and toward improved social and ecological relations must pass through the nuclear family, for it is there that children (the future "global citizens") receive their ethical formation. Growing to adulthood then requires each person to reflect on this legacy and internalize it while continuously enriching it based on personal experience. Gradually, but surely, the "collective unconscious" evolves accordingly.
But personal evolution, while critical, is not the only evolutionary path. Since humans are intelligent "social animals," the evolutionary process can be fostered, without impinging on personal freedom, by schools, associations, and many other secular and religious institutions. As Susan Anthony once stated:
"We need a daily paper edited and composed according to woman's own thoughts, and not as woman thinks a man wants her to think and write. As it is now the men who control the finances control the paper. As long as we occupy our present position we are mentally and morally in the power of men who engineer the finances." Susan Anthony, Columbian Exposition, 23 May 1893
In terms of improving gender relations, which is indispensable to overcome social and ecological injustice, gaining the right to vote for women was a big step in the right direction. But most secular institutions are already coming onboard, and the next big step may be up to religious institutions. The next step is not political but religious. The kind of unity in diversity, equality in mutuality, individuality in community that the theology of the body/gender envision will remain utopian as long as patriarchal religions continue to image God as male and reserve official ministerial positions for males. It is now a case of "the men who control the soul control the mind." This is the reason that fostering the access of women to roles of religious authority is so important for a healthier human ecology. Let us pray that all religious bodies can discern the difference between patriarchal ideology and revealed truths, and act accordingly.
Outgrowing current structures of social and ecological injustice cannot be achieved by just tweaking economic policies. Technological fixes will not do it either. A major cultural evolution will be required, an evolution from Homo economicus to Homo ecologicus. It must be a conscious evolution in which people learn that self-interest must be tempered by consideration of the common good. It must be a collective evolution whereby institutions become agents of change rather than just protecting the status quo. Humanity does not have an infinite amount of time to accomplish the transition, so it must consciously and collectively seek ways to formulate, and implement, a new cultural synthesis. Since communism is by now discredited as a viable option, it is imperative to radically humanize capitalism to make it work in more socially and ecologically fair ways.
This humanization of capitalism in turn requires giving up the patriarchal mindset of male domination, which also manifests itself in the exploitation of natural resources without counting the cost, and embracing a culture of solidarity. Whereas racism is already recognized, at least in principle, as a social evil, sexism remains as the greatest obstacle to solidarity. Sexism is pervasive, sets 50% of humanity against the other 50%, and is deeply ingrained after at least six millennia of patriarchal hegemony. It is so pervasive that all secular and religious institutions have been contaminated across all cultures worldwide. This is where the action is if a new and more human cultural synthesis is to be created. The theology of the body offers the best human anthropology to guide humanity, consciously and collectively, along the path of overcoming radical patriarchalism while, at the same time, avoiding other radical ideologies that are not conducive to integral human development.
The signs of the times, and practical expediency, are giving impetus to the process of outgrowing patriarchy in secular institutions. Religious institutions, on the other hand, are lagging behind and sinking in fear of losing the legacy of spiritual wisdom that they feel entrusted to conserve and transmit. In the Christian world, this is especially the case in the liturgical, or more sacramental, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. This is one more reason -- in addition to the glory of God and the good of souls -- that the ordination of women to preside in liturgical worship is so important for families and the entire community of creation.
Munificentissimus Deus, Apostolic Constitution Defining the Dogma of the Assumption, Pope Pius XII, 1 November 1950 § 44.
The Invisible Partners: How the Male and Female in Each of Us Affects Our Relationships, John B. Sanford, Paulist Press, 1979.
Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Brundtland Commission, United Nations, 1987.
The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church, Pontifical Biblical Commission, Vatican City, 18 March 1994.
The Theology of the Body: Human Love in the Divine Plan, Pope John Paul II, Pauline Books, 1997. See also Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body, Pope John Paul II, translation by Michael Waldstein, Pauline Books, 2006. For more on the TOB, including tutorials and recent updates, visit The TOB Net and The Cor Project.
Conscious Evolution: Awakening Our Social Potential, Barbara Marx Hubbard, New World Library, 1998. For more on conscious evolution, including tutorials and recent updates, visit the website of the Foundation for Conscious Evolution.
The Female Body and the Sacramental Priesthood in neo-orthodox Catholic Theology, Tina Beattie, Chapter Four in God’s Mother, Eve’s Advocate. A Gynocentric Refiguration of Marian Symbolism in Engagement with Luce Irigaray, Centre for Comparative Studies in Religion and Gender, University of Bristol, 1999, pp. 56 - 66.
The Trinitarian Foundation of Human Sexuality as Revealed by Christ According to Hans Urs Von Balthasar: The Revelatory Significance of the Male Christ and the Male Ministerial Priesthood, Robert Pesarchick, Gregorian University Press, 2000.
Ethics for a New Millennium, Dalai Lama, Riverhead Trade, 2001.
Conceptualization of the Person in Social Sciences, Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences, Vatican City, 2005.
A User's Guide to Integral Human Development (IHD), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Baltimore, 2009.
Caritas in Veritate, Encyclical Letter on Integral Human Development in Charity and Truth, Pope Benedict XVI, 29 June 2009.
Beyond Religion: Ethics for a Whole World, Dalai Lama, Mariner Books, 2011.
Theology of the Body for Every Body, Leah Perrault, Novalis Publishing, 2012.
Following St. Francis: John Paul II's Call for Ecological Action, Marybeth Lorbiecki, Rizzoli Ex Libris, 2014.
Ideas Have Consequences: Faith, Gender, and Social Ethics, Mimi Haddad, Priscilla Papers, Winter 2014 (reprinted here). See also Male and Female: One Image, One Purpose, Mimi Haddad, Red Letter Christians, 26 March 2014, and Mutuality, Spring 2014.
Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature: Our Responsibility, Pontifical Academies of Sciences and Social Sciences, Vatican City, 2-6 May 2014.
Of the Same Flesh: Exploring a Theology of Gender, Susan Durber, Christian Aid, July 2014. See also Gender Justice for All: Achieving just and equitable power relations between women and men, Christian Aid, July 2014.
Human Development Report 2014: "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience", UNDP, United Nations, 24 July 2014.
Why Not Women Patriarchs?, Dwight Longenecker, National Catholic Register, 26 August 2014.
The Great Nunquisition: Why the Vatican Is Cracking Down on Sisters, Jo Piazza, Time, 31 August 2014
Current series on family issues and sustainable development:
Gender Balance in the Post-Patriarchal Age, November 2013.
On Gender Groupthink, Solidarity, and Sustainability, December 2013.
On Gender, Family, and Integral Human Development, January 2014.
On Families and the Human Family, February 2014.
Sustainable Development of the Human Family, March 2014.
Sustainable Development of Body-Persons, April 2014.
On Sustainable Humanity & Sustainable Nature, May 2014.
Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature: Our Responsibility, June 2014.
Cultural Evolution for Solidarity and Sustainability, July 2014.
Conscious Evolution for Solidarity and Sustainability, August 2014.
Collective Evolution for Solidarity and Sustainability, September 2014.
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