1. The Religious Roots of Gender Violence
Violence Against Women|
in Contemporary World Religion:
Roots And Cures
Daniel C. Maguire
Professor of Moral Theology & Ethics, Marquette University, and President, The Religious Consultation On Population, Reproductive Health and Ethics
Note: The following is quoted (with permission) from Violence Against Women in Contemporary World Religion: Roots And Cures, Daniel C. Maguire and Sa'Diyya Shaikh (Editors), Pilgrim Press, 2007, 248 pages.
Excerpts from Chapter 2, "The Courtroom and the Garden: Gender and Violence in Christendom," by Grace M. Jantzen, pages 36-39:
"If such overt violence against women was in most cases unnecessary (though always available), it was because both women and men had internalized the gender constructions upon which it was based. Crucial to this was the idea of sacrifice, the aspect of the doctrine of covenant that turned inward to the community rather than outward in holy war. Again it was the Christian reading of the "Old Testament" that provided the paradigms, especially the story of Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, and the ritual slaughters in Israelite worship. Abrahan sacrifice of Isaac was taken as the example of perfect obedience; the ritual slaughter of animals was the means of purification and atonement for sins. Together, they indicate in Christian theology what is necesary for right standing before God, and they come together in Jesus' death. Jesus was the "only begotten son of God" who gave his life in perfect submission to the will of the Father, as Isaac had been willing to do. At the same time, he was the "Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world." Thus, for example, the writer of the book of the Hebrews develops a theology in which Christ is the mediator of the new covenant, a covenant not now related to an earthly promised land but to an eternal life in a new kingdom, the kingdom of heaven. "Without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins" (Hebrews 9:22), but Christ offers himself as the perfect sacrifice, in fulfilment of his Father's will."
"On the face of it, this does not seem to have anything to do with gender construction, let alone with violence against women. I suggest, however, that the opposite is the case; indeed, it builds a symbolic structure in which violence against women is legitimated into the central structure of Christendom. In the first place, note the importance, on this account, of blood and killing. As God is portrayed in most standard accounts of the doctrine of the atonement, God desires blood and demands death. Without it, sins will not be forgiven. And unless God forgives sins, the penalty is, according to much Christian teaching across the centuries, eternal torment in hell. Christian teaching from the biblical writers onwards has placed the emphasis on divine love and mercy, God's rescue of humans from this dreadful fate by giving up his own son to take the penalty in substitution for them. But this emphasis evades the darker awareness that it is God who has set up the "courtroom" situation in the first place, instituting the requirement for blood before he will forgive sins and making the penalty of hell for those whose sins remain. Did God had to make such demands and penalties? What would we think of a parent or a ruler who set up those under his authority in such a way, even if he then made special provision for a few favored subjects to live in bliss instead? I am of course not suggesting that this crude reading is the only way in which the Christian doctrine of atonement can be understood, let alone taht this is waht God is "really" like. But it cannot be denied that some such portrayal has dominated Christendom through the centuries, and at its core is a God who legitimates - indeed requires - violence and blood. It is in fact the same God as the one who requires the violent extermination of all who do not worship him: the doctrine of sacrifice is the inward expression of the doctrine of holy war, and together they constitute the covenant...
"Here again the critical move is the gender construction of the male as active and the female as passive or, turning that around, of activity as masculine and passivity as feminine. To the extent that this became part of Christian thinking, sacrifice itself was feminized. To be properly female is to be self-sacrificial. There is not a one-to-one gender mapping here, but the overarching picture sees the one who enacts the sacrifice - Abraham, the Father God, the priest - as paradigmatically male, while the victim, although literally male, is symbolically female... When this was put together with the idea that men are created to "have dominion" and that women are to be "help meet for them," then it is obvious that women will be required to be subservient to men... Both women and men could be socialized in such a way that female self-sacrifice was taken for granted by all concerned... What women themselves might want or need, or how these needs could be met, were questions that could scarcely arise... But if a woman did assert herself against male domination, if she was not sacrificial enough to satisfy her father or husband, physical violence could be used against her with relative impunity. She could be beaten or otherwise punished; forced into mariage or a convent. Rape withing marriage was legitimate. Given the gender constructions of masculinity and femininity, gender violence was inevitable and to a large extent taken for granted by both sexes. And the deep structure of Christendom help it to make it so.
"It is telling that marriage itself is described, in traditional Christian liturgy, as a covenant between a man and a woman, echoing the language of covenant in the Bible. In the sketch that I have presented, that covenant was represented as involving both externalized and internalized violence and bloodshed: violence against the threatening "other" and ritual violence in perpetual sacrifice. The gender constructions throughout are such that masculinity is geared toward acting out violence and women are conditioned to suffer it. Thus, it is hardly surprising if in the "covenant" of marriage the same gender roles have been taken fro granted and sanctioned in Christendom."
Editor's Note: It would be wise as well to examine the impact of patriarchal religious practices on boys and men. The symptoms may be different but, directly or indirectly, religious patriarchy harms men as much as it harms women. A case in point is the current situation in Ireland. Violence begets violence. What goes around comes around. In both religion and society, when 50% of the population dominates the other 50%, 100% of the population is bound to suffer in one way or another. A civilized transition from consumerism to sustainability requires the talents and collaboration of all men and women, heterosexual or homosexual, in all dimensions of human life and across the full range of the gender continuum.
For further study and reflection on religious violence:
"What I want is mercy, not sacrifice." Matthew 9:9-13
Colloquium On Violence & Religion (COV&R), Official website for exploration, criticism, and development of René Girard‘s Mimetic Theory.
Faith Beyond Resentment: Fragments Catholic and Gay, James Alison, Crossroad, 2001.
The Masculinity Conspiracy, Joseph Gelfer, CreateSpace, 14 August 2011.
The Forgiving Victim, James Alison, The Raven Foundation, forthcoming July 2012.
2. Heterosexuals and Homosexuals in Religion
Patriarchy preceded all the major religions that exist today, and biased them all from the beginning in favor of heterosexual male hegemony and domination (Cf. Genesis 3:16). This section is a synopsis about the universality of the deeply ingrained prejudice - undoubtedly based on male-only images of God - that must be overcome if organized religion is not to become an obstacle to integral human development.
Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, Bahá'í International Community, 1999.
- Religious Tolerance, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 1995-2011.
This web site offers an excellent synopsis (with passage quotations, annotated citations, and links to other web sites) about the status of women in the Bible and in early Christianity. It is structured as follows:
- During Old Testament times, when the roles of women were severely restricted
- Hebrew scripture passages treating women as generally inferior to men
- Hebrew scripture passages treating women as property of men
- Hebrew scripture passages describing women in other negative terms
- Hebrew scripture passages describing women as equal to men (very few)
- Hebrew scripture passages describing women as leaders (but not as religious leaders)
- During Jesus' public ministry to the people of Israel, when the roles of women were severely restricted in accordance with the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) traditions and practices
- Changing roles of women after the execution and resurrection of Jesus (circa 30 CE)
- Regressive statements by Christian religious authorities (all male) after the 2nd century CE
By following these lists of biblical and post-biblical statements, the reader is able to verify the descriptive versus prescriptive passages about women, and the significant discontinuities that must be researched, as pointed out in Section 1.
- The emerging field of women and gender studies now includes issues of men, masculinities, and spirituality. See, for example:
- Sex on the Brain: The Biological Differences Between Men and Women, Deborah Blum, Penguin, 1998.
- Does Masculinity Thwart Being Religious?, Edward H. Thompson Jr. and Kathryn R. Remmes, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, September 2002.
- Women, Power, and the Biology of Peace, Judith L. Hand, Questpath Publishing, 2003.
- Biological Differences Between Men and Women With Respect to Social Stability and Aggression, Judith L. Hand, 2006.
- Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality, Yasemin Besen and Gilbert Zicklin, Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality, Novermber 2007.
- Guide to Graduate Work in Women's / Gender Studies, Joan Korenman and NWSA, 2009.
- Contemporary Masculine Spiritualities and the Problem of Patriarchy, Joseph Gelfer, Equinox Publishing, 2009.
- The Patriarch's Nuts: Concerning the Testicular Logic of Biblical Hebrew, Roland Boer, Journal of Men, Masculinities and Spirituality, June 2011.
- The Other Side of the Gender Equation: Gender Issues for Men in the Europe and Eurasia Region, Susan D. Somach, KDID Social Transitions, July 2011.
It is important for gender studies to be balanced and include the study of both men and women, heterosexual and homosexual. Gender studies, if properly integrated along the gender continuum, can provide crucial insights to help foster gender equality and gender balance.
- What "America's Pope" thinks of gay marriage, priestly celibacy, and women priests, CBS Sixty Minutes Overtime, 21 August 2011.
On the ordination of women:
Archbishop Dolan: "Jesus gave women positions of responsibility. The only ones at the foot of the cross except for St. John? Women. The people that discovered his resurrection? Women. The people that were with him on his journeys? Women. People say, 'This guy was kind of a pioneer in women's rights.' So, if he were going to intend them for the priesthood, he woulda done it. And he didn't."
Mother Pelican's Response: The good archbishop is offering a specious argument based on a literalist interpretation of gospel texts
taken out of context. There are many things Jesus did 2000 years ago that he wouldn't do today. Would he, in the globalized society of the 21st century, select twelve Jewish men to represent the patriarchs of the twelve tribes of Israel? Likewise, there are many things Jesus didn't do 2000 years ago that he would do today (such as including women among the apostles, since the credibility of women as witnesses now has as much credibility as that of men) and he warned his disciples about thinking that they already knew everything he might do in the future (John 16:12-13).
The Bahá'í religion is a shining exception to the phallic syndrome that prevails in many religious institutions: "The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. Inequality retards not only the advancement of women but the progress of civilization itself. The persistent denial of equality to one-half of the world's population is an affront to human dignity. It promotes destructive attitudes and habits in men and women that pass from the family to the work place, to political life, and, ultimately, to international relations. On no grounds, moral, biological, or traditional, can inequality be justified. The moral and psychological climate necessary to enable our nation to establish social justice and to contribute to global peace will be created only when women attain full partnership with men in all fields of endeavor." It is noteworthy that the Bahá'ís do not have clergy, so it may have been easier for them to avoid the trap of a male-only hierarchy.
In brief, since their inception most religions have absorbed the patriarchal mindset of male hegemony, and awareness that this isa prejudice to be overcome - rather than a sacred tradition to be conserved and transmitted - is a new phenomenon. Perhaps the impending economic and ecological crises, and the unavoidable need for all humans to collaborate in transitioning to a world of solidarity and sustainability, will induce a religious renewal and help to overcome pseudo-dogmatic resistance to change.
3. Women and Religious Gender Roles in Judaism
Wikipedia article on Women in Judaism:
The role of women in Judaism is determined by the Hebrew Bible, the Oral Law (the corpus of rabbinic literature), by custom, and by non-religious cultural factors. Although the Hebrew Bible and rabbinic literature mention various female role models, religious law treats women differently in various circumstances.
Relatively few women are mentioned in the Bible by name and role, suggesting that they were rarely in the forefront of public life. There are a number of exceptions to this rule, including the Matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah, Miriam the prophetess, Deborah the Judge, Huldah the prophetess, Abigail who married David, and Esther. In the Biblical account these women did not meet with opposition for the relatively public presence they had.
According to Jewish tradition, a covenant was formed between the Israelites and the God of Abraham at Mount Sinai. The Torah relates that both Israelite men and Israelite women were present at Sinai, however, the covenant was worded in such a way that it bound men to act upon its requirements and to ensure that the members of their household (wives, children, and slaves) met these requirements as well. In this sense, the covenant bound women as well, though indirectly.
To continue reading the Wikipedia article, click here.
The Wikipedia article includes a very comprehensive bibliography and a directory of links to Jewish religious sources. With regard to current trends on the role of women in Judaism, the following articles are very instructive:
Disturbing recent news on religious violence against women:
If this is the situation today, imagine how it was 2000 years ago!
4. Women and Religious Gender Roles in Christianity
Wikipedia article on Gender Roles in Christianity:
Gender roles in Christianity vary considerably today as they have during the last two millennia. This is especially true with regards to marriage and ministry.
Christianity traditionally has given men the position of authority in marriage, society and government. This position places women in submissive roles, and usually excludes women from church leadership, especially from formal positions requiring any form of ordination. The Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, and many conservative Protestant denominations assert today that only men can be ordained—as clergy and as deacons.
Many progressive Christians disagree with the traditional "male authority" and "female submission" paradigm. They take a Christian egalitarian or Christian feminist view, holding that the overarching message of Christianity provides positional equality for women in marriage and in ministry. Accordingly, some Protestant churches now ordain women to positions of ecclesiastical leadership.
Despite these emerging theological differences, the majority of Christians regard women with dignity and respect as having been created alongside men in the Image of God. The Bible is seen by many as elevating and honoring women, especially as compared with certain other religions or societies. Women have filled prominent roles in the Church historically, and continue to do so today in spite of significant limitations imposed by ordination restrictions.
To continue reading the Wikipedia article, click here.
Goddess Thealogy, An International Journal for the Study of the Divine Feminine
Volume 1, Number 1, December 2011
"Goddess Thealogy: An International Journal for the Study of the Divine Feminine provides the forum for critical exploration and cultivation of Sacred Feminine scholarship as it relates to feminist and post-feminist thealogy, deasophy and praxis. Goddess Thealogy is interdisciplinary in that it encourages the wide range of diverse thealogical and deasophical methods, engagement with the full spectrum of feminist theories and methodologies, and interaction with the social sciences, social theory, philosophy, psychology, anthropology, critical theory, the arts, and the humanities. Whilst academic in its orientation, the journal is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of readers, whether theologically trained or not. Its discussion of contemporary issues and past concerns as they relate to the traditions of the Goddess is not narrowly scholastic, but sets those concerns in a practical perspective. We encourage all kinds of thealogical and deasophical exploration including articles that contain pictures and art."
GOOD NEWS: Teresa Forcades: A "hopeful woman" speaks on the state of women in the Church, José Manuel Vidal, Iglesia Descalza, 25 October 2011.
She is a doctor, a theologian, and a cloistered nun. However, Teresa Forcades, the Benedictine from the convent of St. Benet in Montserrat, is known all over the world. A YouTube video against the multinationals and the swine flu hoax catapulted her into fame. We interviewed her in Madrid on October 7th, taking advantage of the presentation of her book, La teología feminista en la historia ("Feminist Theology in History" -- Fragmenta). Sister Teresa states that women's situation of exclusion in the Church is "a scandal" and that "no Pope has dared to ban women priests ex cathedra." But she also acknowledges that it has been in the Church and in her convent that she has felt most respected as a woman.
Why does a cloistered nun like yourself write a book on "feminist theology in history"?
The book was proposed by the publishing house Fragmenta. They proposed it because they knew that I had trained with theologian Elizabeth Schüssler Fiorenza. I met her in Barcelona in 1992, before the Olympics. I was going to study in the United States, to specialize in internal medicine. She had come from Harvard and gave a lecture. A lecture in which the communication broke down because the interpreter, who knew English well, knew nothing about theology. I got up to help with the translation from English to Catalan and the problem was solved. Elizabeth was delighted and invited me to visit her at Harvard. In the end, it was she who came to Buffalo, in northern New York state, where my hospital was, to give another lecture.
And you had to get up again as a spontaneous interpreter?
I went to her lecture, which there was no need to translate, and we met again. And, as a result, I started to translate one of her books into Catalan, her book about feminist Biblical hermeneutics. I liked the book very much and translated it to delve deeper into its contents. When I finished the translation, I went to interview Schüssler Fiorenza a couple of times, to share my doubts and reflections with her. Seeing how I had received, understood and processed her book, she encouraged me to study theology and wrote me a letter of recommendation to study at Harvard.
A life journey the publishing house knew about.
Exactly. What's more, I had given some lectures on feminist theology in Barcelona. And when the publishing house launched this series of brief, introductory books that could serve as university texts to introduce the theological discipline, they asked me to write the book and I agreed with pleasure.
As a feminist theologian, is the current situation of women in the Church painful to you particularly?
The situation of women in the Church has a complex history that includes both discrimination and promotion. The discrimination hurts anyone who is for justice and who understands that the gospel involves human growth at all levels. In the gospel, one also learns the reality that when a person tries to live out Jesus' message, he or she is usually marginalized. In that sense, the situation of women testifies to the fact that there are truths whose place will always be on the margins until the end times.
That is to say, you are prepared to go along on the margins or on the frontier and without aspiring to the altar.
The dynamic of the gospel margins is, in my opinion, the promotion of justice at all levels but knowing realistically that, whenever one manages a step forward, a process is generated whereby whoever doesn't want to stay in one place will continue to find reasons to go on walking towards the margins. Hence my theological defense of the margins.
And the ban on women's presence at the altar?
The conclusion of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, which was asked by Paul VI to study the issue, was that there is no Biblical reason whatsoever to deprive women of access to ordained ministry. That was in 1976. In 1974, the first women's ordinations in the Episcopal Church had taken place. Paul VI saw it coming that similar demands would be made in the Catholic Church so he asked the Pontifical Commission to study the issue.
What does the Pontifical Commission document say specifically?
It states that in the Scriptures there is nothing against it. After learning the conclusions of the Commission, Paul VI published a motu proprio in which he said that he didn't think women should be ordained in the Catholic Church.
And later on came John Paul II's attempt to close the subject definitively.
Yes, but no Pope has dared to proclaim this ban ex cathedra.
Is this flagrant discrimination against women in the Church a scandal?
Yes. For those who want to go deeper into this issue, I recommend Professor Gary Macy's book, The Hidden History of Women's Ordination.
How does this situation exist at a time, too, in which civil society is moving towards parity?
I don't like the pattern that has been set putting civil society in the vanguard and the Church in the rear on something in which it should be a pioneer. I think the situation between men and women and the way of viewing feminine and masculine in contemporary Western society is far from being satisfactory. What I'm most interested in discussing theologically are the critical theories of Lacan and some of the modern post-structuralists. Because, at the moment and acknowledging that there may be others who have had a different experience, where I have felt most respected as a woman has been in the Church and, specifically, in my convent. Compared to other environments, such as the hospital or the university, I stick with the monastery, by far, as a space of freedom and respect. In my relationship with the monks of Montserrat for example, I have found much richer possibilities for interaction than those I have generally experienced or observed between men and women who are colleagues at the hospital or university.
Then the Church isn't as anti-women as they say.
Look, we have to start to talk about this issue truthfully because, otherwise, it would seem like we have, on the one hand, a liberated society -- an oasis or mecca for women -- and, on the other hand, the Church that is an institution of oppression and disaster. My experience speaks to the contrary. Because, if it were such, perhaps I wouldn't be where I am.
Do you mean to say that there's a huge space of freedom within the Church in spite of everything?
There always has been. What happens is that you also have to denounce that, within the leadership ranks of the Church, women are totally unrepresented. And that is the scandal we were talking about.
Freedom for women in the Church-people of God and lack of representation in its hierarchy.
We have to change this notion of Church that looks upwards first. To talk about the Church, we have to first look down. And down there we find founders and initiatives that have no corollary in the civil world. At least up until now. We'll see what happens in the 21st century.
Some of the more conservative Web sites point fingers at you and accuse you of all sorts of heresies. Are you scared?
I remember St. Francis' "perfect joy" and I think it's essential for a Christian to know that when everybody is applauding you, you're going the wrong way. Unleashing the anger of certain sectors is not in itself a guarantee that you're right, but it's a bit better than when everyone is applauding you.
Is the hierarchical Spanish Church too closed in on itself and does it exert too much control over its ranks?
It's clear that, since Vatican II, there has been a turning inwards. And, one can note that in the Spanish Church fear exists and there's a lack of freedom to speak in different voices, which is what usually happens when people speak from their experience. That uniformity of expression is very troubling.
Is there a lack of diversity in the Spanish Church? Or, to put it another way, are the Spanish bishops able to accept that there are different church models or sensibilities and that all are valid?
Many bishops are able. The problem is that it's not just a matter of accepting that, but living it out. The bishops have the right and duty to exercise their pastoral responsibility according to their own consciences; they can't just substitute the criterion that comes from above for their own criterion. In that sense, the bishop doesn't only accept diversity, he becomes a generator of the latter and lives it.
You're a Benedictine nun. Does religious life have a future or has its time come to an end? What do you think?
I think it's very good. Religious life has changed throughout history and it will only have a future if it keeps on doing so. Change is inherent in religious life and only the branches that don't change tend to disappear. Maybe we Benedictines will come to an end, but those community spaces of people who see that their lives aren't fulfilled by living as a couple but in relationship with a community will always exist. Because they are also people who bear witness that this is the model for all in the eschatological world.
Religious life as anticipation of the heavenly life.
This is Christian anthropology. The life of the couple is the sacrament of God's own love but temporarily so. Community life is eschatologically so because God calls us to be people who understand that the relationship with all of humanity, with all who are created in God's image, is a relationship of absolute love, a relationship of giving and receiving like that of the Trinity. The Christian utopia proposes this life of trinitarian communion.
But that can also be experienced in marriage -- being open to all and loving all.
Obviously, but marriage is until death do us part. And that's why Jesus said: "You don't understand." Because, in Heaven, people don't marry.
Was your 2009 video denouncing the famous swine flu scheme so successful because it showed the superficiality of the great factual powers of information in a globalized world?
We have to be clear in the criticism that the growing inequality between rich and poor over the last 50 years is the greatest disaster in modern society. It is a much bigger scandal than the injustices to women in the Church that we talked about earlier, although there isn't much sense in comparing injustices, because each one is an absolute in itself. There is much to be criticized in modern society but not as a slogan. Because while it's true that this superficiality exists, it's also true that it's coexisting with people who really believe that one shouldn't wait for the solution to problems to come from above.
There's also a lot of good in current society.
Exactly. Today there are many people who are taking the reins of their lives into their own hands. It's true that we are going through a neoliberal stage that, at the structural level, can be compared to other stages in history in which there was a growing unease among the people.
What do you think of this growing outrage that's spreading everywhere, including in the Arab world?
I'm very worried about what's happening right now in Libya and Syria. And what could happen in Iran. Especially from the perspective of the great political lies. They did it twice, but it seems we weren't chastened. It happened in Iraq and later we regretted it. I think the same thing has happened with Gadhafi. They lie to justify a military intervention. Why don't we intervene in Saudi Arabia to liberate women?.. and yes, we did in Afghanistan.
Would you like the Pope to go to Somalia as a prophetic gesture to stop or mitigate the deaths of so many people and so many innocent children?
This might be another of those slogans from which I would like to stand apart. Perhaps now, when everybody's looking at Somalia, I might like the Pope to go somewhere else. Because disasters proliferate. For example, what's happening in Sudan?
Are the media fooling us?
I have the impression, which was confirmed in the case of swine flu, that another of the major current scandals in the lack of freedom in the world of information. There's more journalistic freedom in Periodista Digital or Vida Nueva than in El País or La Vanguardia.
Let's go back to where we started: life is better in the Church.
I wouldn't like to bite my tongue when it's time to criticize what can be criticized in the Church, but let no one ask me to say that there's greater freedom in civil society than in the Church, because it isn't true. Which doesn't mean that the Church has nothing to learn from non-ecclesial society. It always has.
Did you participate in, or see World Youth Day? What do you think of these kinds of events?
I didn't see much of it. The three youngest sisters in the convent went and they came back very content. The macro-Church event is perhaps a sign of the times. I attended one of those macro events in Venezuela for the 90th anniversary of the death of Monseñor Romero and it seemed extraordinary to me. The same thing happened to the people who went to see the Pope. These big church events are perhaps a sign of the times in the 21st century. What's important is the kind of message they send and how they use those spaces.
And how were they used during WYD?
I think there was a preponderance of conservative expressions and messages towards the young people along us-them (Church-society) lines, but there were also spaces where one could share the faith with a more open viewpoint.
Do you have hope for the future of society and the Church? Are you a hopeful woman?
For example, will we see a change in the Church in the short term?
More than in the short term, today. I like to look at reality the way Jesus asked us to. A look that sees that the fields are golden or mature and that there is just a need for harvesters. That outlook that sees, as St. Paul says, that the world is pregnant with God. And even already giving birth, and in places where nobody anticipated it. That's what gives hope.
5. Women and Religious Gender Roles in Islam
Wikipedia article on Women in Islam:
The study of women in Islam investigates the role of women within the religion of Islam. The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. The Qur'an makes it clear that men and women are equal, however the Qu'ran states in 4:34, "Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient and guard in the husband's absence what Allah orders them to guard." Although the Quran does say this, the superiority of men is interpreted in terms of strength by the context - men maintain women. This verse however refers to a relationship between a husband and wife, not in society as a whole.
Sharia (Islamic law) provides for complementarianism, differences between women's and men's roles, rights, and obligations. However neither the Quran nor Hadith mention women have to cook or clean. The majority of Muslim countries give women varying degrees of rights with regards to marriage, divorce, civil rights, legal status, dress code, and education based on different interpretations. Scholars and other commentators vary as to whether they are just and whether they are a correct interpretation of religious imperatives.
To continue reading the Wikipedia article, click here.
Some additional references:
The Women of Islam, Lisa Beyer, Time Magazine, 25 November 2001.
Mauritanian Islamic leaders ban genital mutilation, Mohamed Abdel Wedoud, Magharebia, 15 January 2010.
Women in Islam, Catherine of Siena Virtual College, 2010.
Gender Equity in Islam (Foundations of Spiritual and Human Equity), Jamal Badawi, Islam Online, 29 March 2011.
Gender Equity in Islam (The Economic Aspect), Jamal Badawi, Islam Online, 30 March 2011.
Gender Equity in Islam (The Social Aspect), Jamal Badawi, Islam Online, 4 April 2011.
Gender Equity in Islam (The Legal/Political Aspect), Jamal Badawi, Islam Online, 7 April 2011.
Gender Segregation and Inequality inside Israel and Palestine, International Middle East Media Center, 30 November 2011.
International conference calls for gender equality in Muslim societies, Today's Zaman, Istanbul, 23 December 2011.
6. Women and Religious Gender Roles in Buddhism
Wikipedia article on Women in Buddhism:
"Women in Buddhism is a topic that can be approached from varied perspectives including those of theology, history, anthropology and feminism. Topical interests include the theological status of women, the treatment of women in Buddhist societies at home and in public, the history of women in Buddhism, and a comparison of the experiences of women across different forms of Buddhism. As in other religions, the experiences of Buddhist women have varied considerably.
"The founder of the religion, Gautama Buddha, permitted women to join his monastic community and fully participate in it, although there were certain provisos or garudhammas. As Susan Murcott has commented: "The nun's sangha was a radical experiment for its time" [Murcott, Susan (1991). The First Buddhist Women:Translations and Commentary on the Therigatha. Parallax Press. page 4.] Dr. Mettanando Bhikkhu says of the First Buddhist council: "Perhaps Mahakassappa and the bhikkhus of that time were jealous of the bhikkhunis being more popular and doing more teaching and social work than the bhikkhus. Their anti-women prejudice became institutionalized at that time with the eight garudhammas, the eight weighty restrictions. We must discontinue that prejudice. There is no anti-women prejudice in Jainism and they survived in India; whereas Buddhism had prejudice and did not survive in India" [see The First Council and Suppression of the Bhikkhuni Order]. Although it must be said that this is factually incorrect, because there are jain sects like the Digambara sect, which believes that women are capable of spiritual progress, but must be reborn male, in order to attain final spiritual liberation. It is also highly doubtful that the garudhammas were motivated by Mahakaasapa's being jealous, as he is said to be an enlightened one and one of the principle disciples of the Buddha. Furthermore there's no support within canon, to suggest that the bhikkunis were more popular, taught more or that they did more social work than Bhikkhus.
"The various schools and traditions within Buddhism hold different views as to the possibilities of women's spiritual attainments. Feminist scholars have also noted than even when a woman's potential for spiritual attainment is acknowledged, records of such achievements may not be kept - or may be obscured by gender-neutral language or mis-translation of original sources by Western scholars. According to Bernard Faure, "Like most clerical discourses, Buddhism is indeed relentlessly misogynist, but as far as misogynist discourses go, it is one of the most flexible and open to multiplicity and contradiction."
To continue reading the Wikipedia article, click here.
Some additional references:
The Place of Women in Buddhism, Swarna de Silva, Enabling Support Foundation, 1994.
A Grand Declaration of Gender Equality, Writings on Buddhism, Soka Gakkai International, 1996.
Full Ordination of Women in Tibetan Buddhism, His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, 2007.
An Argument Against Gender Discrimination Within The Buddhist Sangha, Anthony Burns,
International Buddhist College, Thailand, 2007.
Buddhism and Women, BhudaNet (with links to other resources), 2008.
The Position of Women in Buddhism , L.S. Dewaraja, Buddhist Pub Soc, Sri Lanka, 2011.
Ordination of Women in Buddhism, Wikipedia, 2011.
Buddhism Gender and Sexuality, Patheos, 2011.
7. Women and Religious Gender Roles in Hinduism
Wikipedia article on Women in Hinduism:
The role of women in Hinduism is often disputed, and positions range from equal status with men to restrictive. Hinduism is based on numerous texts, some of which date back to 2000 BCE or earlier. They are varied in authority, authenticity, content and theme, with the most authoritative being the Vedas. The position of women in Hinduism is widely dependent on the specific text and the context. Positive references are made to the ideal woman in texts such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, while some texts such as the Manu Smriti advocate a restriction of women's rights. In modern times the Hindu wife has traditionally been regarded as someone who must at all costs remain chaste or pure. This is in contrast with the very different traditions that have prevailed at earlier times in 'Hindu' kingdoms, which included highly respected professional courtesans (such as Amrapali of Vesali), sacred devadasis, mathematicians and female magicians (the basavis, the Tantric kulikas). Some European scholars observed in the nineteenth century Hindu women were "naturally chaste" and "more virtuous" than other women, although what exactly they meant by that is open to dispute. In any case, as male foreigners they would have been denied access to the secret and sacred spaces that women often inhabited. Mahabharata and Manusmriti asserts that gods are delighted only when women are worshiped or honoured, otherwise all spiritual actions become futile.
There is a wide variety of viewpoints within the different schools and sects of Hinduism concerning the exact nature and gender (where applicable) of the Supreme person or being; there are even sects that are skeptical about the existence of such a being. Shaktism, for example, focuses worship on the goddess Devi as the supreme embodiment of power, or Shakti (feminine strength; a female form of God). Vaishnavism and Shaivism both worship Lakshmi with Vishnu and Parvati with Shiva respectively as beings on an equal level of magnitude (the male and female aspects of God). In some instances such as with Gaudiya Vaishnavism, specific emphasis is placed on the worship of God's female aspect (Radharani) even above that of her paramour Krishna. Thus it could be said that Hinduism considers God to have both male and female aspects, as the original source of both.
To continue reading the Wikipedia article, click here.
Some additional references:
Landmark Step to Gender Equality, Bina Agarwal, The Hindu, 2005.
Women in Hinduism, Hindu Wisdom, 2008.
Gender equality is passé, let us usher in gender partnership, V. N. Mukundarajan, The Hindu, 2010.
Shaming numbers, Editorial, The Hindu, September 2011.
8. Paula Gonzalez: Sister of Charity and "Solar Nun"
Sister Paula Gonzalez, SC
Paula Gonzalez, SC - The Solar Nun
Sustainable Midlands Blog
Sister Paula González, S.C., Ph.D., (born 1932) entered the Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati in 1954. She earned her doctorate in biology at the Catholic University in Washington, DC, and was a biology professor at the College of Mount St. Joseph in Cincinnati, Ohio, for 21 years.
Since 1972, Sister Paula has been freelancing as a futurist and environmentalist, working for more than three decades to promote sustainable living. She supported the work of the Alternate Energy Association of Southwestern Ohio, including serving as president for a while. She has developed audiotape courses in Earth-healing; has written several articles and book chapters on ecospirituality, conservation, renewable energy, and spiritual ecology; and has reached thousands in person by giving over 1800 presentations.
Sister Paula designed and did much of the work of converting a former chicken barn into “La Casa del Sol,” a 1,200 sq ft (110 m2) super-insulated, passive-solar house she shares with another Sister of Charity. When the temperature dropped below zero in the winter of 1985, the home temperature dropped to no lower than 50 degrees without any heater running. Sister Paula’s success with solar energy earned her the nickname “Solar Nun.”
Sister Paula founded EarthConnection, an environmental learning center where tours, internships, and environmental educational programs have been conducted. Located on the grounds of her congregation’s motherhouse, the EarthConnection Center was completed in 1995 and continues to showcase various renewable-energy technologies including daylighting, passive and active solar thermal, grid-tied photovoltaic, and geo-exchange energy systems. The systems are not only impressive in their variety, but also notable for the unusual “solar-assisted geothermal” configuration, where summer heat is transferred from solar thermal collectors to an insulated bed of earth around the building for use the following winter.
The American Solar Energy Society’s Ohio Chapter, Green Energy Ohio, gave Sister Paula their Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005.
In 2007, Sister Paula and Keith Mills founded Ohio Interfaith Power and Light, a coalition of religious people responding to the climate-change crisis. Ohio Interfaith Power and Light is an affiliate of The Regeneration Project’s national Interfaith Power and Light campaign, which has programs in 26 states involving over 4000 congregations (as of May 2008).
1. In Medical-Surgical Nursing by Shafer et al., Ecology and Health, St. Louis: Mosby, 1975.
2. Study Guide to Accompany Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology, Reith, Breidenbach, Lorenc, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.
3. In The Future of Global Nuclearization, Global Nuclearization: Some Alternative Futures, New York:Joint Strategy and Action Committee, Inc., 1985.
4. In Embracing Earth: Catholic Approaches to Ecology, An Eco-prophetic Parish?, A.J. LaChance and J.E. Carroll, eds., Maryknoll, NY: 1994.
5. In Ecology and Religion: Scientists Speak, Learning from the Earth: Key to Sustainable Development, J.E. Carroll and K.E. Warner, eds., Quincy IL: Franciscan Press, 1998.
6. In Earth at Risk: An Environmental Dialogue between Religion and Science, Developing an Ethic for Sustainable Community, D.B. Conroy and R.L. Petersen, New York: Humanity Books, 2000.
1. Healing the Earth: An Emerging Spirituality, (12-session minicourse), Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1991.
2. What on Earth Are We Doing? (5 hours), Kansas City, MO: Credence Cassettes, 1994.
1. Reading the Signs of the Times: Justice, Ecology and Christian Life, (2 hours), Laurel MD: Earth Communications, 1995.
2. In The Great Chain of Being: Simplifying Our Lives, Awakening to the Sacred (1 hr) and Toward a Sustainable Future (1 hr), Albuquerque, NM: Center for Action and Contemplation Summer Conference, 2007.
Journal/Magazine Articles (Selection)
1. In Momentum (NCEA Journal),“New “3Rs” for the Teacher of the 1990s”, December, 1986.
2. In InFormation, “Moving into the New Millennium: Challenges for Religious”, March, April, 1998.
3. In Occasional Papers (Leadership Conference of Women Religious), “Befriending Change”, April, 1999.
4. In Radical Grace (Center for Action and Contemplation), “Every Day Should Be ‘Earth Day’”, April–June, 2001.
5. In Earthlight (Journal for Ecological and Spiritual Living), “Living in a Eucharistic Universe”, Spring, 2004.
6. In Preach, “Called to Tend the Sacred”, Sept/Oct, 2004.
7. In Earthlight, “Toward A New Monasticism” Spring, 2005.
8. In Radical Grace, “Tis The Gift to Be Simple”, Spring, 2007.
9. In St. Anthony Messenger, “The Our Father: Our Environmental Prayer”, Oct, 2007.
RECENT ENGAGEMENT: Eco-Education Events for the Public and Faith Communities
9. Amrutha - A Theological Novel by John Wijngaards
"Monsignor Shamus McKenna, 'Muss' to his friends, serves the Pope in Rome as theological adviser. His job requires him to uphold the medieval doctrine of natural law which recent Popes have imposed on all Catholics. When Muss enters the real world, he is in for a shock.
"The sexual ethics of "Natural Law" have created havoc in the Catholic world. Married couples may never use the pill or a condom. Gay partners are forbidden any form of sexual intimacy. Women are mothers by nature and not suitable for the priesthood . . . .
"Carrying out his unusual research Muss faces one risky challenge after the other. He delves into dark recesses of human sexuality. He finds out what women are really like, and falls in love. He becomes a husband and father.
"But will he ever escape the menacing, stifling, suffocating stranglehold of the LAW OF NATURE?!"
To get a copy of the book, click here.
"Past Catholic morality has been tainted with negative views on sexuality. On this site we present a balanced view, supported by modern Catholic theology. We try to preserve a healthy balance, asserting that sex is good & sacred, avoiding left and right extremes:"
New Focus in Catholic Sexual Morality
- 1. The shift from ontological constructs of gender, marriage and sexuality to the experiential discovery of gender, marriage and sexuality.
- 2. The shift from 'Augustinian' dualism to celebrating the marvelous gift of body, gender and sex
- 3. The shift from law-centered sexual ethics to person-centered sexual ethics
To read this sections, click here.
The Controversy about Natural Law
- Background information about 'Natural Law'
- Medieval views based on the work of Thomas Aquinas
- The natural law of sex
- The tyranny of the Catholic Church's sexual ethics
- The thinking of Church leaders fails
- Human intelligence is natural law for us
To read this sections, click here.