1. Men, Women, and Cross-Gender Solidarity
Hassanal Noor Rashid
Originally published in
JUST International, Malaysia, 25 August 2016
REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION
Throughout history the search for identity has been an integral part of what we recognize as the human experience. The existential struggle to discover who we are and what our purpose in life is, leads many on various journeys.
Our identities are shaped by a complex and significant number of factors, ranging from the historical and the cultural, to the ethnic and the religious. ‘The Other’ and perceived differences from the Other also often shape notions of identity.
There is a dark side to this pursuit of identity. In various instances, great conflicts have raged over the pursuit and assertion of identity as it ultimately gets tied to notions of dignity, pride and even justice. Identity takes on the form of zealous dogmatism where differences become so irreconcilable, that it results in human suffering and injustices.
Here we shall discuss the notion of Gender as one of the most significant aspects of human identity that has long been the focus of much historical debates and controversy and which has seen a resurgence in various societies, most prominently in Western ones.
This discourse on gender has inspired many to question the actual importance of gender, the role it has in societal building and the very meaning thereof.
There will be three parts to this essay. Firstly we shall examine briefly the meaning of Gender, secondly, we shall highlight the various contemporary gender issues, and finally some suggestions will be laid out on how to best tackle these challenges.
GENDER: MEANING & DISTINCTIONS
However, before we begin to examine the current trends in Gender issues, a brief distinction needs to be made here for the purpose of clarity so as to avoid confusion about the meaning of gender within the context of our discussion.
Gender is largely distinct from sex classification. Sex has two clear classifications with its distinction mainly based on genetics and apparent biological traits. A male is genetically male and a female is female. There is no abstraction to this distinction as it is fundamentally rooted in hard science.
Gender however is more abstract and complex, addressing matters pertaining to the roles normally associated with both sexes, commonly known as masculinity and femininity. These roles which are more commonly developed within a contextual framework are therefore unique cutting across varying socio-cultural environments.
The idea of masculinity and femininity has largely to do with the power structures within a society. In many historical traditional settings, the male masculine ideal has been one of a provider or a hunter (correlating with the male physical attributes), tasked to protect and ensure the well-being of the family and community. This role empowers the male with a sense of authority over the aforementioned family unit and places him centrally important to the survival of the community. This has led many societies to develop a very male oriented foundation, termed popularly as a patriarchy, and gives much access and influence in the public sphere to men.
Women in patriarchal societies occupy the private sphere more often than not, having their roles relegated to care-givers, home-keepers and other similar roles. They tend to be keepers of the home and family life, and in various instances, take on subservient roles to their male counterparts.
This particular patriarchal arrangement ultimately awards men with more power, as matters to do with the community as a whole, fall under their societal jurisdiction. Such power allows them to enforce their will, wants and needs far more strongly in comparison to their female counterparts, and, consequently men make up for much, if not all positions of leadership in these communities.
There have been instances where the inverse is true as well where societies have embraced a matriarchal form of social order. But what is exemplified here is that much of our understanding of gender normativity is highly linked to existing social power structures which favour those who dominate them, or are perceived to have rightful authority over them.
As history has shown, the patriarchal mechanisms which governed societies maintained themselves well into the modern era with much of the rules set, albeit in varying degrees. Different societies however all had their own unique interpretation of gender roles. This changed when the world began moving towards the Industrial Revolution. Traditional male roles were challenged as automation and innovation within the agricultural and manufacturing sectors began to grow more dominant. In direct correlation with economic growth, infrastructures and higher quality of education, a perceived egalitarian system of governance was beginning to replace traditional power structures, thus challenging established social norms and the status quo.
Women now could access the mechanisms of power and many begun to demand more active participation within the public sphere of society.
This is where the first seed of feminism was sown, with many questioning the lack of women’s participation in politics, the professional workforce and anything beyond their traditional gender roles. This trend grew and became more prominent in a post Second World War socio-political landscape. Women rightly demanded for more rights and participation, for women’s issues and concerns to become matters of discussion within the arena of politics and civil society, and ultimately, they began to question the legitimacy of the patriarchal system, the foundation it is constructed upon, and its relevancy in this contemporary setting. This became what some perceived as a post-modern era of feminism.
Gender, was recognized for what it was—an artificial construct that could be challenged and redefined to meet the needs of modernity. What this redefinition would be however is a matter that is up for debate, but what is clear is that many women and men were beginning to question the meaning of gender and its relation to identity, morality and justice. This has also had the effect of strongly empowering women to speak out against injustices faced by them, forcing many to review and revise how we practice laws and governance which ultimately shapes how we view human rights today.
The debate on gender discourse has had a turbulent history due to the frictional discourse from both its supporters and detractors. Feminism as a school of thought has also undergone varying levels of evolution, with its first incarnation promoting inclusivity into the existing societal power structure, to its more contemporary form of deconstructionism and redefining set norms.
In recent times however, fueled by social media and the advent of the internet, access to unfiltered information has never been easier. It had also allowed for groups to be formed who share similar aspirations or concerns, organizing themselves effectively into small pockets of social activists connected through the online space they share. Many of these same activists have taken up advocacy for gender rights onto social media, promoting a new form of activism.
However, due to the nature of the discourse and accessibility to the materials and spaces for discussion, the arguments supporting and criticizing gender movements have been much more focused and distilled. Much of gender discussion has begun to take a more hostile tone, with various groups exhibiting what can only be described as zealous and insular dogmatism.
In the next section, we shall look at another social phenomenon which contributes significantly towards the rise of dogmatism within the gender discourse and is particularly prevalent within much of Western and European society. This phenomenon in summary is the rise of Individualism and its conceptual foundations within Western discourse and we will discuss how it contributes significantly to the Gender discussion.
INDIVIDUALISM & LIBERALISM: THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION AND THE SHIFTING OF PARADIGMS
In the 1960s till the 1980s, there was a significant popular social movement which had challenged the traditional foundations of normative behavior throughout much of European- Western society. How one views issues pertaining to sexuality had become increasingly contested, with many fringe groups and sexual expressions now becoming emboldened to loudly and unapologetically announce their presence. At the heart of this movement was a strong assertion for rights of the individual and equality of the individual when it comes to their personal choices and preferences.
This assertion of individualism however is a philosophical idea that lies at the heart of most of western society. Its assertion of person-centred goals and its privileging of personal freedom and personal choices meant that collective sexual norms would be scrutinized and criticized. Individualism in that sense laid the foundation for the gender and sexual revolution.
The subordination of collective sexual norms to individual preferences was further encouraged by the media and by cultural and artistic circles which perceived these choices exercised by the individual as a manifestation of the larger expression of freedom that distinguished democratic societies from totalitarian ones. Within the context of that period in history — the decades of the Cold War — the assertion of sexual freedom thus became yet another flag-bearer in the battle between two ideologies.
This also explains to some extent at least why sexual freedom manifesting itself through gay and lesbian rights and other similarly oriented concerns became so integral to liberalism from the eighties onwards. In societies where liberal thought is not conditioned by a pronounced notion of individualism, these ideas on homosexual rights have not struck root. Indeed, in those parts of the world where the sense of collective well-being and solidarity is still strong, there is very little enthusiasm for the sort of sexual revolution that some so-called liberal societies in the West espouse.
Differing understandings of sexual rights and gender identities may not be due entirely to ideological orientations. The socio-economic status of a society may also be an important factor. Many Western liberal societies have reached a point in their economic ascendancy where the individual is no longer dependent upon the collectivity or the community the way his counterpart in a poorer social setting is. In the latter situation because his basic needs and necessities are intertwined with those of the community, the social norms and traditions of the community exert a huge influence upon the individual. This is especially so of prevailing sexual norms.
Nonetheless, it is wrong to view societies and individuals who do not subscribe to certain Western notions of sexual freedom as ‘retrogressive’ or ‘anti human rights’ or ‘against the dignity of a marginalized group.’ Apart from a different perspective on the relationship of the individual to the community or of the integrity of the community itself, there are many societies who remain attached to profound philosophical principles about sexual propriety, male-female relations, the institution of marriage and the sanctity of the family. Some of these philosophies also value gender equality and revere the position of the woman. To dismiss such principles outright is an act of arrogance.
It smacks of dogmatism.
It is such dogmatism and its critique that we now examine.
CHALLENGES WITHIN AND WITHOUT
An article appeared in the news website, Russia Today November 2015 entitled “West in war on sexual norms” written by Sam Gerrans . In it the author criticizes the recent trends in what he perceives as fallacious arguments stemming from the discourse promoting transgenderism and post-modern feminism. In it, he not only heavily criticizes the core ideas of transgendered identity and gender neutralism, he also is blunt about his disdain for the ham-fisted approach which many advocates have taken.
“The pattern is clear: if you want to be a woman (or a man), you can be one by pretending to be one and if you can get enough people to agree with you: it’s true. And anyone who disagrees is a bad, evil person”.
In another article by the same author once more on Russia Today entitled “The Gender Agenda in the War on Normality”, there is a strong assertion for gender as a fundamental foundation, and that it is under attack by what is termed as Cultural Marxists.( The criticism here is leveled more directly against gender neutrality and what is seen as a virulent politicization of gender). Children have become the new battleground for this supposed war on normality, with the new generation of parents using their children to advocate for their beliefs by “parading them about in public places and on You Tube in order to achieve Skinneresque social engineering outcomes.”
The author even goes as far as to say that “Gender is not a spectrum, it is a polarity. If its ideals are opposing, it is part of its purpose. They are designed to complement and perfect each other while remaining distinctly different. Any society that loses its grasp on this obvious reality has no future.”
This is reflected by various social movements happening in both Europe and the United States recently, largely in conjunction with the push to normalize transgenderism into everyday society, and with many new-age parents adopting gender neutrality in regards to the upbringing of their children.
There is also evidence of a push within various institutions whereby there is an advocacy for Gender neutral toilets, or more specifically unisex toilets, where both male and female share a bathroom space together, serving as posters for gender-neutrality.
Gender is also naturally swept in together with issues pertaining to rights of homosexuals as any discussion on gender would include sexuality and identities related to it. Traditional gender roles carry negative connotations, either being labeled as archaic, conservative and even oppressive.
What is important to draw from these narratives is that issues pertaining to Gender Equality and justice, have taken a confrontational tone between two sides that hold distinct beliefs on the matter, one set in tradition, another self-proclaimed progressives. The views advocated by Sam Gerrans are not unique to him alone. They have become steadily popular within the discourse on gender issues, especially among those who feel that contemporary feminism is acting directly in a confrontational manner going so far as to vilify the male gender itself.
These allegations are not unfounded. The sentiments among fringe elements in social media and even public space, especially among self-identified “progressive feminist” groups lend much credence to this perception. Primarily concerned that the current feminist movements spearheaded by online social media activists not only criticizes what is perceived as harmful stereotypical masculine ideals, some even go as far as to espouse rhetoric which suggests that men who uphold traditional masculinity and do not comply to a particular version of feminist ideals, should be reeducated or outright removed from society. Anyone who seeks to respond to their shrill rhetoric is quickly labeled as ‘misogynist’ or ‘bigot’ or even ‘rapist.’ The vitriol is evident for anyone to see when they venture into websites which features these discussions.
The response to the feminists from the other side of the proverbial field is equally problematic. Some of those who respond are guilty of adding and even inciting hateful rhetoric. Much of the rhetoric here revolves around ridicule, with many lumping all feminists into a single group and declaring them to be mentally unsound, of parading around, and of other absurdities. A much more serious accusation leveled at feminists is of misandry. The previously noted vilification has inspired groups to be formed who feel that feminism and contemporary gender movements are in their own way bigoted and contributing much to the social dilemmas we are facing today. There are no kind words among these groups towards those advocating feminism or anyone who genuinely criticizes existing societal frameworks, which ironically results in the vilified vilifying of the vilifier. Some groups have been known to harass and even send death threats, reinforcing their violent persona image — an image that that they have been criticized for.
Here the self-consuming circle is complete and we can see how one group feeds off the other, bloating into two polarizing groups split between ideas of gender identities. Their prejudices are constantly legitimized and are used as evidence to promote their own cause.
However, what is of greatest concern is in fact the very vitriol that these groups exhibit as it begins to borderline on dogmatism, and perhaps this is where the real problem lies.
Strangely it is an observable trend that such forms of extreme dogmatism occur mainly in Western societies, as there is a long history of western discourses swinging into extremes especially on highly charged political and social issues.
Dogmatism more often than not represents two contrasting ideological discourses that are irreconcilable with one another. It promotes a dangerous state of mind where its merits are dependent on the very thing it opposes, but at the same time leaves no room for reconciliation or meaningful discussion. This leads to an advocacy of ideals that severely lacks any element of human compassion and falsely lays claim to progressive thought.
In fact it can be stated that the representation of these two groups and their dogmatic rhetoric does not contribute to and arguably damages the very cause they are supposedly advocating for, with each group’s absurd vilification of the other. Gender discussion and discourse becomes the ownership of the arrogant and the absurd.
Meaningful discourse, progressivism and humanity do not benefit from it and may even come out lesser for it.
The contemporary nature of gender discourse is a phenomenon that will continue to undergo varying stages of evolution as society grows. Even though the present arguments are dangerously dogmatic by nature, it does not mean that there are no important issues which are highlighted that need to be discussed within the context of gender.
Issues pertaining to gender equality, whether it is equal pay, rights, political participation, safety and justice are far too important to ignore as a society. A society, especially a progressive one, must take responsibility and see to the well-being of all its people. Many times over the criticisms of society and the patriarchal institutions that govern it do indeed point towards various injustices that need to be remedied in both developed and developing societies.
This does not mean however that we should allow the discourse on gender to be dominated by those seeking to impose their dogmatic beliefs on it. Much like the nature of gender itself, the issue is not one that is binary but instead it has its own nuances that need to be carefully negotiated and this requires active participation by civil society.
There is an important need for civility in these discussions however, as pointless vilification and a serious lack of human compassion detracts from the value of these arguments, perhaps the most important element to move forward with. Without reasonableness and a compassion for one’s fellow human beings, the moral foundation upon which gender issues rely does not have much credible ground to stand on.
Gender discourse needs more active participation to stem the effects of zealous dogmatism from polluting it and it is an issue that needs to be addressed together as a human family.
Mr. Hassanal Noor Rashid is Programme Coordinator with the International Movement for a Just World (JUST).
2. Men and Women in Marriage, Family, and Society
|Population Growth in the Philippines:
"Three Is Enough"
This article was originally published in
Panay News, 11 & 18 July 2016
REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION
Part I - Three Is Enough ~ Realities & Priorities
Limit your offspring to three: a heavy-weight pronouncement from recently-sworn in, June 30, 2016, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte. The diktat targets the child-bearing. This campaign may not rise to the intensity of the current attack on drug-related crimes, but the ill-effects of an exploding population certainly call for drastic action.
Day in and day out, trisikads and tricycles teeter with squeezed-in schoolchildren. Jeeps ramble along overflowing with passengers, two or three precariously standing at the end side of the vehicle—all the way to their destinations. Portraits of accidents waiting to happen, and accidents do happen with the ambulance shrilling by more often than barely.
Wikipedia has figures to show why we have to halt population explosion: “In the top 100 rankings for 2015, the Philippines is No. 12 with total population of 109,615,912. The population of the Philippines will increase by 5,335 persons daily in 2015.” Daily! Gosh! Although these figures are estimates, they do not bode well for the future of the country. I wholeheartedly agree with President Rodrigo Duterte: Three is enough.
Firstly, let it be known that I am against abortion. I put my thumbs down on abortifacients that kill. But I fully favor the use of contraceptives that only prevent pregnancy. Contraceptives do not kill.
What to do? There are several ways to cut down population explosion. Below are some useful information I have culled from the Population Council from No. 10 down. Excerpts:
10. DELAYED MARRIAGES
A marriage at a tender age leads to a long span for giving birth. Also, young-age marriage devoid people of the education and awareness required to be sensitive towards, and understand, the consequences of raising too many children.
9. MEDICAL FACILITIES
Because of the high rural-urban divide in developing countries, availability of good hospitals and doctors is limited to urban centers thus resulting in high infant mortality rate in rural areas. Rural people, in order to ensure that at least some of their kids survive, give birth to more and more kids thus contributing to the population growth.
8. LEGISLATIVE ACTIONS
Not much result can be achieved from these if family planning and use of contraception remain optional instead of mandatory. Strict legal steps are required against child marriage. Education, abolition of child labor and beggary, and family planning will reap significant benefits.
7. PROVIDING INCENTIVES
Incentives have proved to be an efficient policy measure in combating most development issues including population. Providing a health, educational or even financial incentive can be a highly effective population measure.
6. SPREAD AWARENESS
People need to be told and made to understand the consequences of having too many children. Government and non-government institutions can carry awareness campaigns informing people how they will be unable to provide good nutrition, education or medical facilities to their children if they have too many.
5. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
Gender discrimination is a major reason for population growth. People keep giving birth to kids in order to have more sons than daughters. Empowering women with a say in matters concerning child birth and educating them to fight against discrimination will ensure a healthy and aware society.
4. ERADICATE POVERTY
In developing countries of Asia and Africa, child labor, slave trading, and human trafficking are highly prevalent. African countries, for example, still have maximum reporting of slave trading though trading of humans is legally banned everywhere in the world. People give birth to kids and sell them to rich people who in turn employ these kids in various laborious and unethical tasks. If not sell, these parents force their kids to beg or work at a very tender age so as to earn some extra money for the family. These people believe that more kids mean more hands for begging and work, and thus more money.
Education forms the backbone of an individual and economy. Once educated, people know and understand the harms which a high population growth rate possesses. Education, especially women education, can work wonders in controlling population. An educated man and woman can readily understand the benefits of a small family.
2. EASY AND CHEAP AVAILABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVES
Every state owned hospital should be made to provide cheaply efficient birth control medicines or surgeries since poor people have neither the means nor awareness to use contraception. Use of condoms and contraceptives must be advertised and promoted along with ensuring cheap and ready access to these.
Lack of Development implies high poverty, high illiteracy, high discrimination, lack of awareness, lack of medical facilities and thus in turn, result in increased population growth. Any economy is termed developed if its population is non-discriminated and just.
The Population Council has enumerated ways to avert population explosion — from delayed marriages down to a developed economy of a country. Guys and gals, be guided accordingly. Ponder on the above ten factors, and immerse yourself in the convergence of mind, body, and soul—for affirmative actions. Foremost is to limit your offspring to three, becoming a staunch agent of change by halting overpopulation.
Part II - Three Is Enough ~ Data and Practicalities
President Rodrigo Duterte’s pronouncement to limit offspring to three is in full accord with Mother Earth’s 5th Commandment: “You shall limit your offspring for multitudes of people are a burden unto the earth.” I agree absolutely.
Still jetlagged—flying from Inang Bayan (Mother Country) to good ol’ U.S. of A.—I went to Wikipedia to reinforce a previous column, Three Is Enough. These alarming figures from Wikipedia are for us to mull over:
The current population of the Philippines is 102,259,427 as of Tuesday, July 5, 2016, based on the latest United Nations estimates.
The Philippines population is equivalent to 1.37% of the total world population.
The Philippines ranks number 12 in the list of countries by population.
The population density in the Philippines is 343 per Km2 (888 people per square mile).
44.9 % of the population is urban (45,842,660 people in 2016) [See how congested Manila is, and other Philippine cities for that matter.]
The median age in the Philippines is 24.4 years. [That speaks of a long duration of child-bearing years.]
Slowing down population growth is “a given which transcends political considerations,” says PopCom (Population Commission). And, may I add, renders outdated and irrelevant the biblical decree to “go forth and multiply.” Never mind if my parish priest will shake his head on my declaration.
Overpopulation has been discussed in profound terms. High school economics has taught us about the Malthusian theory of population growing faster than food supply. The population versus the natural resources. The population exploding while natural resources get scarcer. Take the basic need for water. The La Mesa watershed in Metro Manila has remained in size while the people who depend on it for water have extensively multiplied. We hear the same story in Iloilo as well as in other parts of the country.
Remember, the more informed you are about birth control, the more control you will have whether you want a child or not. Talk with the doctor how well one of these methods—Wikipedia enumerates—will work for you:
Periodic Abstinence or Fertility Awareness Methods – A woman who has a regular menstrual cycle has about seven or more fertile days or days when she is able to get pregnant, each month. Periodic abstinence means you do not have sex on the days that you may be fertile. These fertile days are approximately 5 days before ovulation, the day of ovulation, and one or more days after ovulation. Fertility awareness means that you can be abstinent or have sex but you use a “barrier” method of birth control to keep sperm from getting to the egg. Barrier methods include condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps, used together with spermicides, which kill sperm. These methods are 75 to 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.
The Male Condom – Condoms are called barrier methods of birth control because they put up a block, or barrier, which keeps the sperm from reaching the egg.
Oral Contraceptives – Also called “the pill,” contains the hormones estrogen and progestin and is available in different hormone dosages. A pill is taken daily to block the release of eggs from the ovaries. Oral contraceptives lighten the flow of your period and can reduce the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ovarian cancer, benign ovarian cysts, endometrial cancer, and iron deficiency anemia. If you are over age 35 and smoke, or have a history of blood clots or breast, liver, or endometrial cancer, your doctor may advise you not to take the pill. The pill is 95 to 99.9% effective at preventing pregnancy.
Continuous Abstinence – This means not having sexual intercourse at any time. It is the only sure way to prevent pregnancy. This method is 100% effective at preventing pregnancy. Bear in mind that NO method of birth control prevents pregnancy all of the time. Birth control methods can fail, but you can greatly increase a method’s success rate by using it correctly all of the time. The only way to be sure you never get pregnant is to not have sex (abstinence).
Uncontrollable libido? Resort to the most applicable contraception. Inquire about other methods suited to your own reproductive health needs: Intrauterine Device, Female Condom, Depo-Provera, Diaphram, Cervical Cap or Shield, Contraceptive Sponge, The Patch, Hormonal Vaginal Contraceptive Ring, Surgical Sterilization (Tubal Ligation or Vasectomy), Non-surgical Sterilization, and Emergency Contraception.
There now — I did say aggressive promotion of birth control. No holds barred. Full speed ahead!
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Julia Carreon-Lagoc is a journalist and writes the
Accents column for Panay News, Philippines. She can be contacted at
3. The Patriarchal Culture of Command and Control
The following is quoted from Wikipedia:
"Patriarchy is a social system in which the male gender role as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and entails female subordination. Many patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage.
"Historically, patriarchy has manifested itself in the social, legal, political, and economic organization of a range of different cultures. Patriarchy also has a strong influence on modern civilization, although many cultures have moved towards a more egalitarian social system over the past century.
"Patriarchy literally means "rule of fathers" (Greek patriarkhes), "father" or "chief of a race, patriarch". Historically, the term patriarchy was used to refer to autocratic rule by the male head of a family. However, in modern times, it more generally refers to social systems in which power is primarily held by adult men.
"Anthropological and historical evidence indicates that most prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies were generally relatively egalitarian, and that patriarchal social structures did not develop until many years after the end of the Pleistocene era, following social and technological innovations such as agriculture and domestication. However, according to Robert M. Strozier, historical research has not yet found a specific "initiating event" of the origin of patriarchy. Some scholars point to about six thousand years ago (4000 BCE), when the concept of fatherhood took root, as the beginning of the spread of patriarchy."
For more on patriarchy, click here.
The patriarchal mindset of rivalry and domination is pervasive and induces a culture of "command and control" and transcends family relations and contaminates all human relations as well as the human attitude toward the natural habitat. An excellent exposition of the need for a good dosage of "ecofeminism" to overcome patriarchy is provided by Patrick Curry in Chapter 9 of his book, Ecological Ethics. Following are some excerpts:
"Insofar as patriarchy identifies women with nature and dominates both, they are internally linked, so the struggle to resist or overturn either must address both."
"Ecofeminism is a meeting of two strands. One is feminism itself: the awareness of the pathological effects of dominant patriarchal or (to use a more recent term) masculinist structures, both 'inner' and 'outer' -- particularly, of course, on women but also, ultimately, on their oppressors -- and the attempt to replace them with ones that also value the feminine."
"The other element is a recognition of, and deep concern about, the equally masculinist domination and exploitation of nature through the very same habitual structures of though, feeling and action that devalue and harm women."
Curry goes on to analyze the master mentality, both dualist and hierarchical: "humanity versus nature; male versus female; and reason versus emotion... the domination and exploitation of nature and women proceed by the same logic, the same processes and, by and large, the same people... only ecofeminism brings a critical awareness of the extent and ways in which the subordination of women and ecological destruction are integrally linked."
The chapter unfolds with a review of work by ecofeminist leaders such as Vandana Shiva (India) and Wangari Maathai (Kenya), and proceeds to deconstruct the androcentric (male-centered) mentality while, at the same time, making it crystal clear that ecofeminism is definitely not a matter of demonizing men. In fact, men are victims of patriarchal practices as much as women; in one way or another, domination that goes around comes around. Only an ethics of care, as in a mother holding her child, can break the vicious circle of patriarchal command and control whereby humans abuse the human habitat at their own peril. Indeed, as Lynn White proposed years ago, St. Francis of Assisi should be recognized as the patron saint of ecologists.
ON THE HISTORY OF PATRIARCHY
The Creation of Patriarchy, Gerda Lerner, Oxford University Press, 1987
The Patriarchal Family in History,
Christopher Dawson, in The Dynamics of World History, ISI Books, 2003
What is Patriarchy and Why is it the Most Powerful Force in the World Today?, Mary L. Wentworth, GSN, August 2005
Patriarchy, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2008
Moving Beyond the Pathology of History: Why We Need a Shift in Human Consciousness,
Jean Houston, Huffington Post, 21 September 2010
SOME RECENT NEWS ON PATRIARCHY
The Real Shame: India’s Patriarchy Roars Back After Delhi Gang Rape,
By Nilanjana Bhowmick / New Delhi, Time World, 18 January 2013
My patriarchy is better than yours,
By Hani Yousuf, International Herald Tribune, 17 January 2013
Parliament and patriarchy,
Ramachandra Guha, The Hindu, 31 December 2012
Shrouded in patriarchy,
Victoria Rossi, The Hindu, 15 January 2013
Benign patriarchy is deadly, , The Gleaner, Jamaica, 6 January 2013
Why we must not skirt the real issues—rape & patriarchy,
Patralekha Chatterjee, DNA, 14 January 2013
Patriarchy begins with the textbook,
Bhavya Dore, Hindustan Times, Mumbai, West India, 9 January 2013
No Patriarchy, No Police State, No Capital Punishment: A Report on the Rally Against Rape,
Soma Marik, International Viewpoint, 7 January 2013
Our Violent Economy is Hurting Women,
Vandana Shiva, Yes! Magazine, 18 January 2013
Microfinance and Patriarchy: 'A Drift Away from Serving Women',
Knowledge@Wharton, Forbes, 18 January 2013
The Bible Is Man-Made: Why Patriarchy Still Reigns,
George Elerick, Huffington Post, 21 ecember 2012
The tragedy of homo disappointus,
Deepanjana Pal, DNA, 19 January 2013
Were the First Artists Mostly Women?, Virginia Hughes, National Geographic, 8 October 2013
Cave Women Rocked: Science Shows Prehistoric Gender Equality, Piper Hoffman, Care2, 8 November 2013
4. Gender Balance for Solidarity and Sustainability
New York — The 60th session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women concluded today with UN Member States committing to the gender-responsive implementation of Agenda 2030. A set of agreed conclusions called for enhancing the basis for rapid progress, including stronger laws, policies and institutions, better data and scaled-up financing.
The Commission recognized women’s vital role as agents of development. It acknowledged that progress on the Sustainable Development Goals at the heart of Agenda 2030 will not be possible without gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls.
UN Women Executive Director Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka welcomed the agreement and the commitment of UN Member States to make the 2030 Agenda, adopted last September, a reality in countries around the world. She said: “Countries gave gender inequality an expiry date: 2030. Now it is time to get to work. These agreed conclusions entrench and start the implementation of a gender-responsive agenda 2030 with which we have the best possibility to leave no one behind.”
Growing global commitment was already in evidence with a record number of more than 80 government ministers from around the world attending the Commission. Around 4,100 non-governmental representatives from more than 540 organizations participated as well, the highest number ever for one of the Commission’s regular annual meetings.
The agreed conclusions urge a comprehensive approach to implementing all 17 Sustainable Development Goals through thorough integration of gender perspectives across all government policies and programmes. Eliminating all forms of gender-based discrimination depends on effective laws and policies and the removal of any statutes still permitting discrimination. Temporary special measures may be required to guarantee that women and girls can obtain justice for human rights violations.
The Commission endorsed significantly increased investment to close resource gaps for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls. Funds should be mobilized from all sources, domestic and international, ranging from fulfilling official development assistance commitments to combatting illicit financial flows that shortchange public resources for gender equality.
With humanitarian crises and other emergencies disproportionately affecting women and girls, the Commission underlined the imperative of empowering women in leadership and decision-making in all aspects of responding to and recovering from crisis. On the eve of the World Humanitarian Summit, it stressed prioritizing women’s and girls’ needs in humanitarian action and upholding their rights in all emergency situations. Every humanitarian response should take measures to address sexual and gender-based violence.
Members of the Commission united behind ensuring women’s equal participation in leadership at all levels of decision-making in the public and private spheres, encompassing governments, businesses and other institutions, and across all areas of sustainable development. Depending on different circumstances, this may involve establishing temporary special measures, setting and achieving concrete benchmarks and removing barriers to women’s participation.
Given the major contributions to Agenda 2030 of civil society, including women’s and community-based organizations, feminist groups, human rights defenders and girls’ and youth-led organizations, the Commission welcomed open engagement and cooperation with them in gender-responsive implementation. It emphasized fully engaging with men and boys as agents of change and allies in the elimination of all forms of discrimination and violence against women and girls.
To guide systematic progress towards gender equality and women’s empowerment throughout the 2030 Agenda, the Commission stressed enhanced national statistical capacity and the systematic design, collection and sharing of high-quality, reliable and timely data disaggregated by sex, age and income. Members also agreed to bolster the role of national mechanisms for women and girls in championing their equality and empowerment.
5. Gender Balance for Adaptation to Climate Change
"As a rights-based organisation, CARE's climate change strategy is geared towards the empowerment of poor and marginalised people. CARE is deeply concerned about constraints that the inequitable distribution of rights, resources and power – as well as repressive cultural rules and norms – place on people's ability to take action on climate change. We believe that a wide range of development goals are achievable only if decision makers at all levels recognise the unique risks faced by poor and marginalised people and their essential roles in planning, implementing and evaluating action on climate change.
"The majority of the world's poorest people today are women and girls. Climate change is making it even more difficult for them to realise their basic rights, and it is exacerbating inequalities since they are more vulnerable to its impacts than men.
"Moreover, many women are denied access to new information about climate change and participation in important decision-making processes despite having unique skills and knowledge – about low risk farming, sustainable water management, family health and community mobilisation, for example – vital to effective adaptation.
"For all these reasons, and because women are central to the food and livelihood security of their families, we place a special emphasis on gender equality and women's empowerment."
For more, including links to other CARE resources, click here.
KEY LINKS TO ADAPTATION & GENDER
- People-Centred Climate Change Adaptation: Integrating Gender Issues, FAO, 2007.
- Gender and Climate Change, UNDP, 2007.
- Women, Gender Equality and Climate Change, UN WomenWatch, 2009.
- Women are powerful agents of change, CARE International Climate Change Information Centre, 2011.
- Adaptation, gender and women's empowerment, CARE International Climate Change Brief, October 2010. Also available in Spanish, French, and Portuguese.
- Climate Adaptation Challenges from a Gender Perspective, Boell Foundation, 4 April 2011.
- Bringing gender into climate change adaptation, CCAFS, CGIAR, 12 July 2011.
COLLABORATION BETWEEN INDIA AND SIERRA LEONE
One specific case worthy of study in Women Bringing Solar Power to Sierra Leone, The Guardian, 15 September 2011. The following summary is excerpted from YaleGlobal, 16 September 2011.
"Developing renewables to meet the growing demand for energy is a top priority in the 21st century. So is enhancing collaboration among developing countries. By training semi-literate women from rural Sierra Leone in solar-energy techniques, Barefoot College in western India works towards achieving both these goals. Twelve women attended and then returned to villages in Sierra Leone to assemble 1,500 household solar units at a new branch of Barefoot College in Konta Line, where the training will continue, reports a blog for the Guardian. The governments of both countries have played their part; Sierra Leone invested $820,000 in the project, and India provided equipment. The vast majority of households in Sierra Leone go without power. Following its decades-long civil war, electricity is Sierra Leone's "most daunting infrastructural challenge," notes a World Bank report. Lighting extends education and socializing into the evening hours, and the women are planning on manufacturing solar units to spread the new power."
6. Women in Roles of Leadership and Governance
Patriarchy in the Hierarchy
Originally published in
Nepali Times, 28 August 2016
REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION
"World of Pregnant Men" by Laxman Bazra Lama
Nepal is going through a dramatic demographic shift. On the one hand, the country’s fertility rate is approaching replacement level — although the momentum of population growth will continue for another generation, it will stabilise thereafter.
This demographic transition of low birth rate and higher life expectancy is accompanied by the biggest population migration in the country’s history. The hill districts are depopulating at staggering rates, losing between 15 to 25 per cent of their inhabitants in the past 10 years as people migrate to cities, plains and abroad for work.
Nearly 20 per cent of Nepal’s population is away at any given time, and considering that the migrants are mostly young men, this could mean that up to half the men in the 20-35 age group are essentially missing from their families, communities and society.
This brings us to the other ongoing societal transformation: the gender shift. Families and communities in rural Nepal are being run by women. With most men gone, rural Nepal has been feminised. The number of female students in high schools and colleges is at an all-time high. Women are moving into jobs traditionally considered the domain of men: driving public transport, and engaged in masonry, carpentry and construction, especially in the earthquake-affected districts. The feminisation of the workforce is subtly empowering women, providing them with cash income and new confidence, bolstering their sense of self-worth.
Gender activists are not particularly fond of Tij — the annual celebration by daughters, wives and sisters — which this year falls on Sunday 4 September. Their criticism is of the practice by women of fasting for the wellbeing and longevity of their husbands. It is absurd, particularly in this day and age, that women should be culturally required not to eat so that their husbands will be well-fed.
However, Tij has always traditionally also been a celebration of sisterhood and solidarity, a one-day rebellion and characterised by deliberate defiance against dominance by men. Could it be that some Nepali women today consider the Tij fast as a hunger strike against patriarchy? Going by the lyrics of the new duets that have been released in the run-up to this year’s festival, there is open ridicule of menfolk as lazy, good-for-nothing spoilt brats.
Add ‘corrupt’. And how aptly that sums up the attributes of most men who have the audacity to rule over us. Let’s just leave aside for the moment the fact that Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal has already squandered one-and-a-half months of his nine-month rotational tenure just to form a council of ministers from a coalition of four parties.
The Nepali Congress could not even agree on a list of ministerial appointees until after the Nepal Students’ Union elections as well as the return from New Delhi of Deputy Prime Minister Bimalendra Nidhi. Why the selection of ministers by Nepal’s largest party should be held hostage by the election of 45-year-old ‘students’, and a visit to India by the prime minister’s special envoy, has never been satisfactorily explained to the public.
Nevertheless, of the 31 ministers appointed in his fourth consecutive expansion of the cabinet, only three are women, two of whom are junior state ministers. Clause 42-1 of the new Constitution expressly stipulates that women and other marginalised groups be given proportional representation in all agencies of government. When it sent its list of 13 ministers, the NC could muster only one woman.
In terms of inclusivity, the ratios are not much better for Dalits, Janajatis, or Madhesis either. For example, there are only two Dalit ministers, and three from Janajati groups.
The sad irony is that this is happening under the prime ministership of Pushpa Kamal Dahal, who used to be the ‘Supreme Commander’ of a guerrilla army of which one-fourth was made up of women warriors, many of whom laid down their lives for equality.
The members of the ruling coalition are the same political parties that took to the streets to protest King Gyanendra’s ‘regression’ in 2006. What a cruel joke that real regression is happening under the rule of these same so-called democratic parties.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Kunda Dixit is the publisher of Nepali Times and author of several books including the trilogy on the conflict in Nepal, A People War, Never Again, and People After War.
7. Men and the Changing Face of Masculinity
Real Men Do Cry:
Emotions Aren't Gender Exclusive
Maud Fernhout and Jennifer Luxton
Originally published in
Yes! Magazine, 13 July 2016
under a Creative Commons License
Photo by Maud Fernhout
Manners and machismo: Traditional Western gender etiquette is clear. Ladies, don’t be loud and unruly. Men, be tough. Dutch university student Maud Fernhout challenged these stereotypes in her photo series “What Real Men Cry Like” and “What Real Women Laugh Like,” in which she asked fellow students from different cultures to do exactly that. When the women saw their own faces crinkled with elation and mouths agape, they were repulsed. “They said, ‘I look so ugly,’” Fernhout recalled. “But when they looked at the other girls, they said, ‘Oh, she’s so pretty!’ and they realized it was okay.” Seeing others break the mold of what a woman’s face should look like changed how they felt about themselves.
Fernhout found that attitudes toward crying men varied by culture: Eastern European students were most resistant, while Italians and Spaniards cried easily. Women’s reactions to how they looked laughing didn’t vary, Fernhout said, perhaps because most of Europe shares the same standards of beauty but not the same standards of masculinity. She hopes that these images will force people to look at their own preconceptions of gendered behaviors.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Maud Fernhout and Jennifer Luxton wrote this article for Gender Justice, the Summer 2016 issue of YES! Magazine. Maud studies Liberal Arts & Sciences at University College Utrecht. For her, photography is a way to express her view of the world, and to help others do the same. Maud’s work can be found on her website.
8. Men, Women, and the Human Habitat
Women and Biodiversity Feed the World,|
Not Corporations and GMOs
Originally published in Common Dreams, 20 May 2015,
under a Creative Commons License
'Women have been the primary growers of food and nutrition
throughout history,' writes Dr. Vandana Shiva, 'but today, food
is being taken out of our hands and substituted for toxic commodities
controlled by global corporations.' (Photos: Georgina Smith/CIAT)
The two great ecological challenges of our times are biodiversity erosion and climate change. And both are interconnected, in their causes and their solutions.
Industrial agiculture is the biggest contributor to biodiversity erosion as well as to climate change. According to the United Nations, 93% of all plant variety has disappeared over the last 80 years.
Monocultures based on chemical inputs do not merely destroy plant biodiversity, they have destroyed soil biodiversity, which leads to the emergence of pathogens, new diseases, and more chemical use.
Our study of soils in the Bt cotton regions of Vidharba showed a dramatic decline in beneficial soil organisms. In many regions with intensive use of pesticides and GMOs, bees and butterflies are disappearing. There are no pollinators on Bt cotton plants, whereas the population of pollinators in Navdanya’s biodiversity conservation farm in Doon Valley is six times more than in the neighbouring forest. The UNEP has calculated the contribution of pollinators to be $200 billion annually. Industrial agriculture also kills aquatic and marine life by creating dead zones due to fertilizer run off. Pesticides are also killing or damaging aquatic life .
Besides the harm to biodiversity and the climate, industrial agriculture actually undermines food and nutrition security. Firstly, industrial agriculture grows commodities for profits of the agrichemical (now also Biotech) and agribusiness corporations. Only 10 percent of the annual GMO corn and soya crop goes to feed people. The rest goes to animal feed and biofuel. This is clearly not a food system that feeds the world.
"Genetically engineered Golden Rice and GMO Bananas are being proposed by corporations hiding behind the cloak of academia as a solution to hunger and malnutrition in the Global South. But these are false miracles."
Secondly, monocultures undermine nutrition by displacing the biodiversity that provides nourishment and the diversity of nutrients our body needs. Herbicides like Roundup do not just kill the milkweed on which the monarch Butterfly larvae feed, they kill sources of nutrition for humans – the amaranth, the "bathua," and the mixed cropping that produces more "Nutrition per Acre" than industrial monocultures (see Navdanya’s report on Health per Acre).
Having destroyed our sources of nutrition by destroying biodiversity—and creating vitamin A, iron and other deficiencies—the same companies who created the crisis are promising a miracle solution: GMOs. Genetically engineered Golden Rice and GMO Bananas are being proposed by corporations hiding behind the cloak of academia as a solution to hunger and malnutrition in the Global South. But these are false miracles.
Indigenous biodiverse varieties of food grown by women provide far more nutrition than the commodities produced by industrial agriculture. Since 1985 the false miracle of Golden Rice is being offered as a solution to vitamin A deficiency. But Golden rice is still under development. Billions of dollars have been wasted on a hoax.
On 20th of April, the White house gave an award to Syngenta which had tried to pirate India’s rice diversity, and owns most of the 80 patents related to Golden Rice. This is reminiscient of the Emperor who had no clothes. Golden Rice is 350% less efficient in providing vitanim A than the biodiversity alternatives that women grow. GMO ‘iron-rich’ Bananas have 3000% less iron than turmeric and 2000% less iron than amchur (mango powder). Apart from being nutritionally empty, GMOs are part of an industrial system of agriculture that is destroying the planet, depleting our water sources, increasing green houses gases, and driving farmers into debt and suicide through a greater dependence on chemical inputs. Moreover, these corporate-led industrial monocultures are destroying biodiversity, and we are losing access to the food systems that have sustained us throughout time. Biodiverse ecological agriculture in women’s hands is a solution not just to the malnutrition crisis, but also the climate crisis.
"Apart from being nutritionally empty, GMOs are part of an industrial system of agriculture that is destroying the planet, depleting our water sources, increasing green houses gases, and driving farmers into debt and suicide."
Women have been the primary growers of food and nutrition throughout history, but today, food is being taken out of our hands and substituted for toxic commodities controlled by global corporations. Monoculture industrial farming has taken the quality, taste and nutrition out of our food.
In addition to destroying biodiversity, industrial agriculture is the biggest contributor of greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are leading to climate change and climate chaos. As I have written in my book, Soil Not Oil: Environmental Justice in an Age of Climate Crisis, 40% of all GHGs—including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and methane—come from industrialised globalized agriculture. And chemical monocultures are also more vulnerable to climate change as we have witnessed in the unseasonal rains at harvest time in 2015.
On the other hand, organic farming reduces emissions, and also makes agriculture more resilient to climate change. Because organic farming is based on returning organic matter to the soil, it is the most effective means to remove excess carbon in the air, where it does not belong, and putting it in the soil, where it belongs. Navdanya’s research has shown that organic farming has increased carbon absorption by 55%. International studies show that with 2 tons of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) per hectare, we can remove 10 gigatons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which can reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon back down to pre-industrial levels of 350 ppm.
In addition, organic matter in the soil also increases water-holding capacity of the soil, reducing the impact of floods and droughts. Just 1% increase in Soil Organic Matter can raise the water-holding capacity of soil by 100,000 liters per hectare. And an increase of 5% can raise it to 800,000 liters. This is our insurance against climate change, both when there is drought and too little rain, and when there are floods and excess rain. On the other hand, cement and concrete increases runoff of water, aggravating floods and drought. We witnessed this in the Uttarakhand disaster in 2013 and in the Kashmir disaster in 2014.
At harvest time of spring 2015 India had unseasonal rains which destroyed the crops. More than a 100 farmers committed suicide. The unseasonal rains due to climate instability added to the burden of debt the farmers are already carrying due to rising costs of production and falling prices. Both the crisis of debt leading to climate change and the climate crisis have a common solution – a shift to biodiverse ecological agriculture which is free of high cost chemical inputs and dependence on corporate seeds, hence of debt, and also has climate resilience built into it through biodiversity and organic soils.
4000 years ago our ancient Vedas had guided us, "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Care for it, and it will grow our food, our fuel, our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it, and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it."
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Dr. Vandana Shiva is a philosopher, environmental activist and eco feminist. She is the founder/director of Navdanya Research Foundation for Science, Technology, and Ecology. She is author of numerous books including, Soil Not Oil: Environmental Justice in an Age of Climate Crisis; Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply; Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace; and Staying Alive: Women, Ecology, and Development. Shiva has also served as an adviser to governments in India and abroad as well as NGOs, including the International Forum on Globalization, the Women’s Environment and Development Organization and the Third World Network. She has received numerous awards, including 1993 Right Livelihood Award (Alternative Nobel Prize) and the 2010 Sydney Peace Prize.
9. Dismantling the Patriarchal Gender Binary in Society
The Maternal & Natural Law Origins
of Gender-Balance & Democracy
Bruce A. Burton
Hillary Clinton’s election campaign, focused on greater community economic equality, children’s & the public’s welfare, health, & education, verifies the thesis of THE THREE D’S that Democracy from ‘Demeter, the Grain Mother’, as the linguistic & substantive Natural Law origin of Gender-Balance (where all men & women are born equal) & Democracy with its cornerstones of Business, Education, & Health, is derived from the Mother. Also note that America, Ama + Erica, means Mother Love. How relevant to Democratic America is Hillary Clinton’s campaign focus, as a mother, campaigning for the American Presidency!
The patriarchal culture of control and domination is the root of all social and ecological violence. It corrupted the original unity of man and woman (cf. Genesis 3:16) and is now corrupting the unity between humanity and the human habitat. Just as we are now aware that slavery and racism are moral evils, we must become aware that all manner of gender discrimination is a moral evil that must be overcome and eradicated if social solidarity and ecological sustainability are to be attained.
The need to reform obsolete patriarchal structures applies to both secular and religious institutions. Feminism is clearly a "sign of the times" to the extent that it fosters authentic gender solidarity and nonviolence for the good of humanity and the glory of God. Given the enormous influence of religious traditions, it is especially critical for religious institutions to overcome and eradicate any semblance of male hegemony in matters of doctrine and religious practices.
Book Summary of The Three D's: Democracy, Divinity and Drama
From the book cover: "An indexed essay and reference text that spans 10,000 years in its study of Gender Balance and the Natural Law origins of Democracy, including the origins of language, writing, and the alphabet, Abraham's Bronze Age influence on the meaning of Divinity and THE BIBLE, the evolution of Dionysus, the naming of Greek Tragic Drama, and the Neolithic influences on Homer which underlay the rebirth of Democracy in Greece after its disappearance from Neolithic Mesopotamia 2,600 years earlier. Similarly, in terms of Natural Law, the Epilogue reveals how the death of Jane McCrea, in a Homeric repetition of history, influenced the American Struggle for Independence and the rebirth of Democracy in America after its disappearance from Athens some 2,000 years earlier."
The book, The Three D's: Democracy, Divinity and Drama: An Essay on Gender and Destiny, by Bruce A. Burton, is an integrated analysis of the need for gender balance in both the secular and religious dimensions of human development. This book, initially published in 2007 and reprinted in 2013, should be a point of reference for scholars and other professionals seeking renewed progress toward a better world of solidarity and sustainability. Another book by the same author, Hail! Nene Karenna, The Hymn, is a historical novel about unity in diversity. It shows how the principles of solidarity and equality were articulated, and learned from painful experience, by Native American nations long before colonization, and how they are reflected (albeit still imperfectly) in American democracy.
These books convey a profound and critically important message: unless we are unified in diversity, the viability of human civilization is compromised. In particular, the "wampum" concept, meaning "joined" -- as in, e.g., a treaty or understanding of peace stemming from the balancing of the woman (wam) and the man (pum) -- is the physically graphic representation of solidarity of the parties based on gender balance. "Wampum," like "yin-yang" and other similar insights from ancient wisdom traditions, is the necessary and sufficient condition for socially sustainable human development.