The PelicanWeb's Journal of Sustainable Development

Research Digest on Integral Human Development,
Solidarity, Sustainability, and Related Global Issues

Vol. 6, No. 8, August 2010
Luis T. Gutierrez, Editor

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The U.N. MDG Summit ~ 20-22 September 2010
(August 2010 Update)


During the Summer this year the monthly issues will the light and keep track of the preparations for the United Nations MDG Summit to be held 20-22 September 2010 in New York. The UN Secretary-General has made a formal invitation to all nations to participate in this summit on the MDGs. Gender equality is one of the goals (MDG3), and one that is generating much resistance from some institutions, both secular and religious.

The patriarchal mindset still prevails worldwide, and radically so in some institutions. Resistance to MDG3 may be the best case example of the nefarious influence of patriarchal institutions on sustainable development and other significant issues of social and environmental justice. Full partnership between men and women is a prerequisite for sustainable human development.

It is anticipated that MDG8 -- creating a global partnership for development -- will be another hot topic for discussion. At the moment, there is stagnation in generating the international political will required for making significant progress toward the 2015 targets. The future of sustainable development worldwide hinges on the success of this summit.

Planning information and some of the working documents are already online at the UN MDG summit web site. This issue provides a roadmap of this online documentation, with emphasis on opportunities for participation. The outline for page 1 is as follows:

1. The UN MDG Summit 2010 Web Site
2. Review of the "Keeping the Promise" Report
3. General Consultation and Opportunities for Participation
4. References and Workings Documents Available for Online Review
5. Planned Agenda for the MDG Summit Meeting
This issue includes updates of the two supplements:

Supplement 1: Advances in Sustainable Development, is a monthly snapshot of significant recent contributions to in-depth understanding of the sustainable development process in general and integral human development in particular. This supplement includes the following items:

1. Suggestions for Prayer, Study, and Action
2. News, Publications, Tools, and Conferences
3. Advances in Sustainable Development
4. Advances in Integral Human Development
5. Advances in Integrated Sustainable Development
6. Recently Launched Games and Simulation Tools
7. Visualizations of the Sustainable Development Process
8. Sustainable Development Modeling and Simulation
9. Sustainable Development and the International Community

Supplement 2: Directory of Sustainable Development Resources is an annotated directory of online resources on sustainable development and related issues. Links are provided to selected online content in the following categories:

1. Population and Human Development
2. Cultural, Social, and Security Issues
3. Financial, Economic, and Political Issues
4. Ecological Resources and Ecosystem Services
5. Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources
6. Pollution, Climate Change, and Environmental Management
7. Land, Agriculture, Food Supply, and Water Supply
8. Current Outlook for the Planet and Human Civilization
9. Transition from Consumerism to Sustainability

Supplement 3: Sustainable Development Simulation (SDSIM) - General Description is a preliminary draft of the user's guide for SDSIM Version 1, organized as follows:

1. The Sustainable Development Paradox
2. Sustainable Development Simulation Scenarios
3. SDSIM Version 1 Causal Loop Diagram
4. SDSIM Version 1 Detailed Model Diagram
5. SDSIM Version 1 Model Formulation & Documentation
6. SDSIM Version 1 Model User Interface
7. SDSIM Version 1 Simulation Experiments
8. SDSIM Version 1 Simulation Analysis & Synthesis
9. SDSIM Version 1 Limitations & Planned Extensions

Supplement 4: Sustainable Development Simulation (SDSIM) - User Interface provides a prototype user interface for SDSIM Version 1 with two user decision variables: "priority given to human development" and "intended human birth rate." This supplement also includes the model equations listed in their order of execution at each time iteration t, where t = 1950, 1951, .... 2199, 2200.

1. SDSIM Version 1 User Interface
2. SDSIM Version 1 Model Equations

The U.N. MDG Summit ~ 20-22 September 2010
(August 2010 Update)

Luis T. Gutierrez
Editor, The Pelican Web & Journal

1. The UN MDG Summit 2010 Web Site

The UN MDG Summit Web Site was recently launched in anticipation of the summit meeting to be held 20-22 September 2010 in New York. The eight MDGs remain the same, and the 2015 targets are not moving, but the world has changed a lot since the Millennium Declaration was approved by the General Assembly in 2000.

Just in case the reader wants a refresher on the U.N. Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs, the eight goals and 2015 targets and indicators are defined as follows:

Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day

1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day

2. Poverty gap ratio
Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

4. Growth rate of GDP per person employed
5. Employment-to-population ratio
6. Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day
7. Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment 

Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

8. Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age
9. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

Target 4: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

10. Net enrolment ratio in primary education
11. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary
12. Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men

Target 5: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

13. Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education
14. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
15. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Target 6: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

16. Under-five mortality rate
17. Infant mortality rate
18. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles

Target 7: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

19. Maternal mortality ratio
20. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Target 8: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health

21. Contraceptive prevalence rate
22. Adolescent birth rate
23. Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)
24. Unmet need for family planning

Target 9: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

25. HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years
26. Condom use at last high-risk sex
27. Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
28. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years

Target 10: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

29. Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs

Target 11: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

30. Incidence and death rates associated with malaria
31. Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets
32. Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs
33. Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
34. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course

Target 12: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources

35. Proportion of land area covered by forest
36. CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)
37. Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
38. Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
39. Proportion of total water resources used

Target 13: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss

40. Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
41. Proportion of species threatened with extinction

Target 14: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

42. Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
43. Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility

Target 15: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

44. Proportion of urban population living in slums


Target 16: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction - both nationally and internationally

Target 17: Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction

Target 18: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)

Target 19: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

45. Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors' gross national income (GNI)(OECD)
46. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) (OECD)
47. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied (OECD)
48. ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their GNIs (OECD)
49. ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs (OECD)
50. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs, admitted free of duty (UNCTAD, WTO, WB)
51. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries (UNCTAD, WTO, WB)
52. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP (OECD)
53. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity (OECD, WTO)
54. Total number of countries that have reached their Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) (IMF - World Bank)
55. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative (IMF-World Bank)
56. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services (IMF-World Bank)

Target 20: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries

57. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis

Target 21: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications

58. Fixed telephone lines per 100 population
59. Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 population
60. Internet users per 100 population

For the latest data on MDG indicators, click here. The left-hand side column of the UN MDG Summit Web Site provides links to all the pertinent MDG references and planning documentation for the September 2010 summit meeting. Clicking on Get Involved! leads to a page with 16 links to web sites on opportunities to contribute (time, talent, treasure) to the MDGs. The right-hand side column provides links to the General Assembly Interactive Sessions in Preparation for the MDG Summit, and the Informal Interactive Hearings of the General Assembly with Non-governmental organizations, Civil society organizations and the Private sector in preparation for the summit meeting, as well as examples of MDG success stories and videos of recent MDG-related events. See also 29 recently added videos on the Millennium Promise.

2. Review of the "Keeping the Promise" Report

The document Keeping the promise: a forward-looking review to promote an agreed action agenda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, by the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, dated 12 February 2010, is the fundamental point of reference for the MDG summit meeting.

"Our challenge today is to agree on an action agenda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. With five years to go to the target date of 2015, the prospect of falling short of achieving the Goals because of a lack of commitment is very real. This would be an unacceptable failure from both the moral and the practical standpoint. If we fail, the dangers in the world — instability, violence, epidemic diseases, environmental degradation, runaway population growth — will all be multiplied." Keeping the promise: a forward-looking review to promote an agreed action agenda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 12 February 2010, section 4.

In the May 2010 issue of this journal, a few recommendations were offered pursuant to facing this challenge. These recommendations are structured around the "guiding principles" proposed by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in Keeping the promise, section 99, and are reiterated here with a an added sense or urgency:

"1. National ownership and leadership complemented by supportive global programmes, measures and policies that align with national priorities and respect national sovereignty are essential."

  • Since global solutions are imperative, and solutions must be consistent with national priorities, it follows that national priorities must be supportive of global solutions. Managing the circular feedback loops between global and national needs is unavoidable. Iterating around these loops requires that all nations agree on the principles of solidarity, subsidiarity, and sustainability. The principle of subsidiarity is especially critical if global and national interests are to be mutually supportive. It is indispensable if some form of global governance is eventually required -- and it is hard to envision global solutions to global problems without global governance. Even if global governance could somehow be avoided or postponed, the principle of subsidiarity must be applied to all sustainable development initiatives ate the local, national, and global levels. Else, MDG8 becomes an impossibility.
"2. The interdependence of human rights, gender equality, governance, development and peace and security must be recognized to attain success and sustainability."

  • Respect for human rights and the need for governance, development, and peace and security are already acknowledged (at least in theory) by all nations. This is not the case with regard to gender equality. In this sense, gaining a universal commitment to gender equality should be a pivotal goal of the "MDG summit." It is reasonable to anticipate universal secular support for this commitment. But universal religious support will be harder to achieve. In fact, some religious institutions will actively try to sabotage any such commitment as being (for some "divinely revealed" reasons) contrary to the wellbeing of humanity. These are the same institutions that persist in excluding women from roles of real religious authority due to the inordinate attachment to the "phallic syndrome." If the religious dimension of gender equality is not addressed, MDG3 will never come to pass, and MDG8 will never come to pass either.
"3. The need to look at the Millennium Development Goals through a gender lens is critical, since women and girls typically face the greatest burdens of extreme poverty, hunger and disease. All of the action areas need to include specific strategies for tackling challenges faced by girls and women. On top of this, critical actions are needed to focus on overarching priorities for gender equality, including challenges of women’s political representation and the intolerable reality of violence against women."

  • Indeed, "a gender lens is critical." But when it comes to issues that pertain to vested interests and/or ancient prejudice, the lens must be really transparent; else, various interest groups will see only what they want to see. This is especially true with regard to gender equality.

    Gender equality is a visceral issue. In the secular world, people with a mindset that gender inequality is "the natural order of things" often display visceral reactions to any proposal in favor of gender equality. In the religious world, it is even worst as visceral reactions are exacerbated by religious fanaticism about obeying "God's will." Of course, men and women are genitally and psychologically different -- and, as the French say, Vive Le Difference! And of course, it is also generally recognized that gender inequities (economic or otherwise) are morally wrong.

    But the issue of gender equality transcends differences in genitalia and/or equity. Gender equality is about the equal dignity of men and women as human persons who share one and the same human nature. And gender equality is about fostering the integral human development of both men and women, boys and girls, without artificial restrictions imposed by primitive thinking, some of which persist as "sacred traditions" in many religious institutions. It is hoped that the "MDG summit" will be unequivocal in calling for gender equality in all nations and human institutions, both secular and religious; anything else would be a disservice to humanity and a sabotage of the MDGs.

    In this regard, it is noteworthy that the Vatican and the Islamic Republic of Iran - both of which are rigid theocracies - are among the few states that have not yet ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), a process that started in 1979. Given the persistence of secular/religious opposition to gender equality, it is a sign of hope that the United Nations has created (resolution of the General Assembly, 2 July 2010), a unified agency - UN Women - to carry forward the struggle to overcome patriarchal cultures worldwide. Women's development is a pivotal dimension of human development.

"4. The norms and values embedded in the Millennium Declaration and international human rights instruments must continue to provide the foundation for engagement, in particular the key human rights principles of non-discrimination, meaningful participation and accountability."

  • Specifically, what is needed is a worldwide commitment to end all human rights abuses, all discriminatory practices, all exclusivist organizations, and all secular and religious structures in which the authorities restrict participation of all stakeholders in governance and make decisions (or evade making them) under the privilege of secrecy. Lord Acton's dictum remains prophetical: "Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely." Now we also know that secrecy corrupts, and absolute secrecy corrupts absolutely; and this applies to both secular and religious institutions.
"5. The need to empower the poor through scaled-up efforts focused on citizen monitoring of Millennium Development Goal delivery, capacity building and improving access to financial and legal services remains crucial."

  • Specifically, this should include supporting development in geographical areas that lack basic necessities and compensating this by an equivalent reduction of extravagant consumption in the overdeveloped areas. In all countries, it should include enhancing human development opportunities for girls and women to bring them into balance with those available for boys and men. This is not reverse discrimination. It is simply a matter of distributive justice.
These recommendations are difficult but not unfeasible. All the recommendations are interdisciplinary. Everyone who wants to make a contribution can have a piece of the action. Politicians will have to rise to the occasion. Let's hope they will. If the "MDG summit" meeting is successful in achieving the necessary national commitments, then the collaborative/integrative work could be accomplished via the National Sustainable Development Strategies. These national strategies might eventually be integrated into a Global Sustainable Development Strategy to be approved by the General Assembly. This will take time. Structuring some appropriate form of global environmental/climate governance will take time. Let's hope that Gaia is patient and kind. And, let us hope that humanity is capable of overcoming the "phallic syndrome" that blocks the transition from patriarchy/consumerism to solidarity/sustainability.

Clarification of terminology: Leveling the playing field between the two halves of humanity (male and female) may eventually require a critical examination of the MDGs and MDG targets as currently formulated. The patriarchal mindset is so pervasive that it may be necessary to exorcise the "phallic syndrome" from the definition of MDG targets. The concept of "phallic syndrome" is based on "phallagocentrism", a term coined by French philosopher Jacques Derrida to describe the propensity to favor masculine terminology in the articulation of meaning. Further research is urgently needed to ensure that the MDG targets actually mark the right direction to achieve gender equality as opposed to simply paying lip service to it. For the time being, however, the MDG targets as presently defined should be pursued with every resource at the disposal of the UN and the member nations.

3. General Consultation and Opportunities for Participation

In preparation for the September Summit, there are several ways to participate by providing your input in a consultation process (open to the general public) that is already underway. You can choose one or more of the following options:


On 7 June the UN General Assembly met to discuss the "zero draft" of the Summit outcome document prepared by the co-facilitators. If you have any comments, you can send them via email to Or, you may prefer to channel your contribution by sending email to the UN Information Center (UNIC) in your own country, or to your country's Mission to the United Nations.
The themes of the consultation are the following:
  • Theme 1: Why are we so far behind in key areas?
  • Theme 2: Emerging issues and challenges
  • Theme 3: Proposals to accelerate progress
  • Theme 4: An action- and accountability-oriented agenda for all stakeholders
If you have a substantive input to contribute, send it via email to the United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service, an inter-agency programme of the UN mandated to promote and develop constructive relations between the United Nations and civil society. Email addresses: (New York office) or (Geneva office).
There are a number of development-related (and specifically MDG-related) working groups and forums/listservs managed by the UN Development Group. For instance, there is the MDGNet group, and to participate you must sign up at the UN Development Group web site or send an e-mail to
The OTHER WAYS TO GET INVOLVED web site provides a list of other possibilities to collaborate with the MDGs summit and subsequent MDG activity.
CoNGO, the NGO Working Group on UN Access was created to address ongoing concerns about increasing restrictions on NGO access – physical and political – to the UN. Your concrete examples of access issues are imperative to the success of the work of the Working Group. You are thus invited to submit such to

4. References and Workings Documents Available for Online Review

MDG-related reference documents and data:

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), UN 2000-2009.
MDG Progress Chart 2009, UNDP 2009.
MDG GAP Task Force Report 2009, UNDP 2009.
Millennium Development Goals Report 2009, UNDP 2009.
Millennium Development Goals Indicators Database, UN STATS, 2009.
MDGInfo and MDG Data Wizard, DevInfo, 2009.
Millennium Development Goals. This directory of links by the National Peace Corps Association is adapted from The Millennium Development Goals: A Report Card for the World, by Joanne Dufour, November 15, 2009.
Poverty in Focus - The MDGs and beyond: Pro-Poor Policy in a Changing World, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG), UNDP, Brasilia, January 2010.
MDG Summit Fact Sheet, UN March 2010.
MDGs at a Glance, UN March 2010.
Women’s Human Rights and Development: Inclusion, Participation, and Equality, Outcome Document of CSDF 2010, May 2010.
Database on the Financial and Economic Crisis, CoNGO, Geneva, 2 June 2010.
Social institutions and gender inequality: The missing link to achieving the Millennium Development Goals?, Karen Barnes, OECD, 1 July 2010.
UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), UN General Assembly, 2 July 2010.
Making the Millennium Development Goals Happen, UN Foundation and Devex, 2010.
MDG Good Practices, UNDG, 2010.
New basis for UN Goals, Navi Pillay, Gulf News, 3 August 2010.
Working documents for the MDG summit as of 1 August 2010:
Keeping the promise: a forward-looking review to promote an agreed action agenda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 12 February 2010.
Global Civil Society Consultation for the MDG+10 Summit, UN March 2010.
Summary of MDG Targets and Indicators, UN March 2010.
The MDGs at 10 and Civil Society, UN March 2010.
KEEPING THE PROMISE – UNITED TO ACHIEVE THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS, "Zero Draft" of the Summit outcome document, dated 31 May 2010.
Report and Executive Summary of the Global Civil Society Consultation for the MDG+10 Summit, UN NGLS, June 2010.
What Will It Take to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals? – An International Assessment, UNDP, June 2010.
Ban Ki-Moon urged to take new approach ahead of key development summit, Letter by 170 Organizations, 13 July 2010.

5. Planned Agenda for the MDG Summit Meeting

The summit objective and planned agenda as of 4 July 2010 is defined in the following web pages:

MDG Summit on 20-22 September 2010 in New York

The preceding link provides the "what" and "why" of the MDG summit. The following link provides the "how" (i.e., the agenda of work items):

High-level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly ("MDG Summit")

The MDG Summit will be comprised of 6 plenary meeting and six interactive roundtables over the course of the three days (20-22 September 2010). The six round-table sessions will have at least 50 seats each and will be co-chaired by two Heads of State or Government. The six round-table meetings would have the overarching objective of "Making it happen by 2015", and each one will focus on one theme, as follows:

  • Round table 1 — Addressing the challenge of poverty, hunger and gender equality
  • Round table 2 — Meeting the goals of health and education
  • Round table 3 — Promoting sustainable development
  • Round table 4 — Addressing emerging issues and evolving approaches
  • Round table 5 — Addressing the special needs of the most vulnerable
  • Round table 6 — Widening and strengthening partnerships
It is noteworthy that gender equality, poverty, and hunger are conflated in the first round-table. Indeed, gender equality is the only way out of the poverty cycle and the hunger that is endemic to extreme poverty. This round table will be a critical turning point for the MDG summit. If gender equality is shown to be the highest priority, then the effectiveness of round tables 2 to 6 will follow as a series of waterfalls. If, on the other hand, opponents of gender equality are able to dilute the fundamental gender equality issue, then round tables 2 to 6 will become rather meaningless discussions; for gender equality is the pivotal issue that runs as a common thread through the six themes.

In fact, gender equality is the most fundamental and universal social issue confronting humanity. Day after day, week after week, so many children see domestic violence in their own homes. These children grow up thinking that "real men" hit and rape. But there are other, more insidious ways to indoctrinate children and make them think that boys are better than girls. Week after week, month after month, year after year, children who attend religious services in most churches, mosques, synagogues, and other temples see only men presiding -- and perhaps boys assisting, but not girls. This phallic worship reinforces misogynist attitudes that are utterly incompatible with gender equality and human progress.

The psychological harm done by this lack of gender balance in religious services should not be underestimated. And the religious institutions that perpetuate gender inequality (and other forms of sexual misbehavior) are hurting themselves to the point of becoming both victims and transmitters of the phallic syndrome. It is hereby suggested that this syndrome, readily observable as the characteristically patriarchal addiction to male hegemony, is a root cause of spiritual bankruptcy and the greatest obstacle to the Millennium Development Goals and other sustainable development initiatives.

The recent Vatican pantomime about juxtaposing the sexual abuse of children with the ordination of women brings this concern into sharp focus. Let's face it: as long as powerful religious institutions choose to perpetuate phallic worship and the phallic syndrome, MDG3 is in jeopardy. And as long as MDG3 is in jeopardy, all the MDGs are in jeopardy.

"Where equality legislation has been passed throughout the world, the Vatican has been granted immunity.... In many impoverished countries, in the name of religious freedom, such misogynist attitudes legitimize violent practices toward women and children. All such immunity must now be withdrawn, in the name of liberty, equality, and even the Gospel."
Mary Condren, Irish Times, 26 July 2010.

"Gender equality is the biggest development multiplier, known to work everywhere."
Navi Pillay, Gulf News, 3 August 2010.


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