8. REFERENCES AND NOTES
In the following list of selected references, care has been taken to include references that reflect opposite viewpoints in some controversial issues. Some references are supplemented by significant quotations, and some are annotated as to their relevance to issues of solidarity, sustainability, patriarchy, gender equity, and sustainable human development.
Note: Click on the reference number to go back to the text.
Some of the basic Girardian references are:
Violence and the Sacred, René Girard, Johns Hopkins Press, 1977.
Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World, René Girard, Stanford University Press, 1978.
The Scapegoat, René Girard, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989, 232 pages.
Are the Gospels Mythical?, René Girard, First Things, Volume 62, April 1996.
The Girard Reader, René Girard, Herder & Herder, 1997, 303 pages.
I See Satan Fall Like Lightning, René Girard, Orbis, Maryknoll, N.Y., 2001.
Violence and religion: cause or effect?, René Girard, The Hedgehog Review, Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture, 22 March 2004.
Official website for exploration, criticism, and development of René Girard‘s Mimetic Theory, Dietmar Regensburger, Colloquium on Violence and Religion (COV&R), Institute for Systematic Theology, University of Innsbruck, Karl Rahner Platz 1, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria, 2006.
Mimetic Paradox and the Event of Human Origin, Eric Gans, Anthropoetics Volume I, Number 2, December 1995.
Violence Unveiled: Humanity at the Crossroads, Gil Bailie, Crossroad Classic, 1996, 239 pages.
Violence Renounced: Rene Girard, Biblical Studies, and Peacemaking, Willard M. Swartley (Editor), Studies in Peace and Scripture, 4, Pandora, 2000, 343 pages.
The Theory of Rene Girard and its Theological Implications - Part I ,
The Theory of Rene Girard and its Theological Implications - Part II,
The Theory of Rene Girard and its Theological Implications - Bibliography, Rob Moore, Kyrie, 2002.
Violence Renounced: Rene Girard, Biblical Studies, and Peacemaking, Marva J. Dawn, Theology Today, January 2002.
Violence & the Lamb Slain, Brian McDonald, Touchstone Magazine, December 2003.
Rene Girard: Violence and Mimesis, Chris Fleming, Key Contemporary Thinkers, Polity Press, 2004, 211 pages.
Daniel's Links to René Girard, Daniel and Rayli Nylund, Majatalo, Finland, 2006.
Girardian Reflections on the Lectionary: Understanding the Bible Anew Through the Mimetic Theory of René Girard , Paul Nuechterlein et al, Girardian Lectionary Net, 2006.
Exploring Faith and Engaging Culture, The Cornerstone Forum, Santa Rosa, California, 2006.
Girardian Theory - Mimesis, Richard Powell, Richard Powell Websites and Recommended Links, 2006.
Research Program Religion-Violence-Communication-World Order, Dietmar Regensburger, Faculty of Catholic Theology, University of Innsbruck, Austria, 2006.
For a concise synopsis of mimetic theory, see one of the following:
Original Sin Redeemed, James G. Williams, First Things, January 1999. This is a book review of The Joy of Being Wrong: Original Sin Through Easter Eyes, James Alison, Crossroad, 323 pp.
Rene Girard and the Mimetic Desire, Phillippe Cottet, AlphaBestiaire, 2000.
What is Paul actually inviting the Corinthians to do?, Pauline Guthrie, Australian E-Journal of Theology, Issue 3, February 2003.
Rene Girard's Theory of Violence, Religion and the Scapegoat, Jeramy Townsley, Jeramy's Web Space, December 2003.
Mimetic Theory and Hermeneutics, Paolo Diego Bubbio, Colloquy, Monash University, No.9, May 2005.
Girard for Dummies, Philip Hunt, Philip Hunt Website, 2006.
Book of Jeremiah, 18, 1-4. "Here is another message to Jeremiah from the Lord: Go down to the shop where clay pots and jars are made and I will talk to you there. I did as he told me, and found the potter working at his wheel. But the jar that he was forming didn't turn out as he wished, so he kneaded it into a lump and started again." Cf. Isaiah 64:8, Ecclesiastes 33:13, Wisdom 15:7, Romans 9:20-21.
Religion and Violence Syllabi, Guide to Internet Resources for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion, Wabash Center, 2006.
"What Is Occurring Today Is a Mimetic Rivalry on a Planetary Scale.", An Interview by Henri Tincq, Le Monde, November 6, 2001.
Global survey reveals religion a bigger priority than politics, Julia Duin, The Washington Times, 16 October 2003.
Violence in Christian Theology, J. Denny Weaver, Cross Currents, July 2001. Another good article is Religion, Power And Violence, Ram Puniyani, Countercurrents, 29 July 2004. For more comprehensive reference information: The Destructive Power of Religion: Violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, J. Harld Ellens, 4 volumes, Greenwood, 2003. "Dozens of studies by 30 senior experts from five nations examine the influence of sacred texts shaping human nature, society, and political and military strategies in the Western world over the last 3,000 years. The authors of this book warn that until destructive religious metaphors are removed from the Western psyche, an end to religious violence in the West will not be possible."
On Being a Christian, Hans Kung, Image, 1984, 720 pages. See also Theology for the Third Millennium : An Ecumenical View, Hans Kung, Anchor, 1990, 336 pages. A definitive documents is the Declaration of the Religions for a Global Ethic, Hans Kung, Parliament of the World's Religions, Chicago, 4 September 1993. Reading and meditating on this document is a must. Key points: there can be "no better global order without a global ethic," "every human being must be treated humanely," and "a transformation of consciousness" is required in order to move toward a culture of ....
1. Non-violence and Respect for Life
2. Solidarity and a Just Economic Order
3. Tolerance and a Life in Truthfulness
4. Equal Rights and Partnership Between Men and Women
Truthful intolerance, Alan Keyes, World Net Daily, 29 March 2006. Another good article: In Solidarity: An Appeal Against Religious Violence, Lines, Vol.2, No.4, February 2004.
Genesis 2:15-17. "The Lord God placed the man in the Garden of Eden as its gardener, to tend and care for it. But the Lord God gave the man this warning: 'You may eat any fruit in the garden except fruit from the Tree of Conscience -- for its fruit will open your eyes to make you aware of right and wrong, good and bad. If you eat its fruit, you will be doomed to die." Cf. Genesis 1:28, Isaiah 5:1-2, Romans 6:23, Matthew 21:33-46, Mark 12:1-12, Luke 20:9-19.
Footprint of Nations 2005 Report, Michel Gelobter, Jason Venetoulis, and John Talberth, Redefining Progress, March 2006.
Contemporary Religious Violence and the Environment: Some Tentative Observations and Assessments, R.E.S. Tanner and C.J. Pawson, Journal of Human Ecology, Vol.15, No.2, February 2004.
Mimetic Theory and Hermeneutics, Paolo Diego Bubbio, Colloquy, Monash University, No.9, May 2005. Excerpt:
"The hominisation process begins when one man starts to imitate the desires of another, that is when a man feels inferior, devoid of something other men seem equipped with. 'Wanting to be like an other' means wanting to possess what he possesses: the mimetic rivalry thus appears and the violence increases with it. Inevitably, rivals tend to resemble each other
more and more, as they are models for each other, and also mutual violence grows proportionately: this is the critical moment of the birth of every culture. The resulting event is the choice - a substantially arbitrary choice - of a scapegoat: the victim is expelled and so the community finds itself united.
"The miracle of the rediscovered peace is later attributed to the scapegoat, which is therefore worshipped and deified. Two events are necessary in order that the miracle can happen again and the community does not collapse in the chaos of the violence. The first is the conceptualisation of the victimage expulsion so as to be able to repeat it. The second is the expression
of such an expulsion in order for the other community members to agree to it. Reason and language appear originally in this way. The expulsion is always repeated, replacing the original victim with newer and newer scapegoats: thus rites come into being. The memory of this experience will be preserved and distorted at the same time in myths. In all myths and rites we can find the presence, hidden or explicit, of a scapegoat. Rites and myths are the spine of every religion: so every religion is a combination of actions fitted to repeat the victimage expulsion for enjoying its beneficial effects, and narrations fitted to guarantee a good outcome for the sacrifice. The sacred which is at the heart of every religion is only a mask for violence.
"Therefore, there is no doubt about the sacrificial nature of every religion. Every religion can be attributed to the victimage mechanism. However, the Old Testament is not merely a series of myths, because sometimes the chorus of lynchers, devout followers of Yahweh, a jealous and violent god, is broken by a voice standing up in defence of the victim. Sometimes the victim
itself refuses his part and proclaims its innocence, as does Job. Christianity is an exception among other religions; we can affirm, indeed, that the Gospels have nothing to do with the violent sacred. As a matter of fact Christ undergoes the collective lynching, but refuses the role of the scapegoat and reveals the truth of the victimage mechanism. However, if the Christian message escapes from the accusation of mystification, the Christian religion does not. Christianity has become a religion, with an impressive internal sacred core: the death of Christ is interpreted as sacrifice, the Father as a cruel god who needs the death of his son to save humanity, the self-sacrifice as a holy action.
"Religion is one of the main tools, and chronologically the first one of them, fitted to perpetuate the victimage mechanism."
Religion may bolster global ecological efforts, Mary Evelyn Tucker, Science & Theology News, 31 October 31, 2005.
The End of Patriarchy and the Dawning of a Tri-une Society, Claudio Naranjo, Amber Lotus, 1994, 153 pages.
The Tyranny of Faith: Reflections on the Death of a Patriarch, Joanna Harcourt-Smith, The Marion Institute, April 2005.
The Patriarchy is Dead! Long Live the Patriarchy!, ARTaud School University, 2006.
The Feminine Economy and Economic Man: Reviving the Role of Family in the Post-Industrial Age, Shirley P. Burggraf, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1997. Book Review: Mary C. King, Eastern Economic Journal, Summer 1998. Excerpt: "Burggraf is not afraid to come out and say what many dare not say. She says that we focus so much political attention on issues of sexuality because 'patriarchy is dying.'"
Dru Blood, David Brancaccio, August 2005. Excerpt: "Seriously, though. Having been pro-choice ever since I can remember, I guess I've been able to distance myself a bit from the debate subconsciously. But when I see reporting like last week's NOW, it's jarring. It's jarring because it's so freaking obvious that this debate has about as much to do with "life" as it has to do with "statutory rape." Instead, what it is is a dying patriarchy's last stab at utterly oppressing women."
Patriarchy Website: Restoration of Biblical Patriarchy, Israel C. S. Lim, 1997.
The Return of Patriarchy, Phillip Longman, Foreign Policy, March/April 2006.
The Power of Partnership, Riane Eisler, New World Library, 2002, 279 pages.
Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World, Rene Girard, Stanford University Press, 1978, 469 pages.
Genesis 1:27. "So God made man like his Maker. Like God did God made man; male and female did he make them."
Gender-Inclusive Language for God, John Cooper, Theological Forum, Vol. XXVI, No. 3 & 4, December 1998.
Gender and Creed: Confessing a Common Faith, S. Mark Heim, The Christian Century, April 17, 1985, pp. 379-381.
Gender and the Nicene Creed, Elizabeth Rakin Geitz, Moorhouse, 1995, 147 pages.
Why a Creed?, A Conversation with Robert Louis Wilken, Christian History, Winter 2005.
Christianity, The Christian Religion, Religious Tolerance Website. See also: World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions - AD 30 to 2200, David Barrett et al, Oxford University Press, 2001.
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9. LINKS TO ARCHIVED NEWSLETTERS